Global Research Assembly


July, 1977




Rural villages in developing nations usually have farming deeply rooted in their traditions. Unfortunately, the pattern of that tradition has maintained a subsistence type of agriculture in the villages. The role of agriculture in Human Development Projects located in this type of village is to enable the community to meet its nutritional needs, and provide a means for local people to earn an adequate living from farming. Altering existing patterns of farming requires indirect as well as direct strategies. The projects will enable the establishment an agricultural infra­structure that will provide the ongoing catalysis towards increased agricultural productivity, by a shifting from subsistence to cash farming.


A corporate agricultural work force will be created from unemployed or under-employed people in the community. They will be trained in actual farm practices by operating the demonstration farm containing intensive crop and animal production. This farm will be a model of integrated intensive farming, producing crops and livestock to be sold locally or on the export market. In addition, specially trained workers from this work force will serve as extension workers to the other farms in the community. The agriculture guild which will be composed of the corporate work force and village farmers will plan and implement how agricultural productivity can be improved. The work force will either be area directly by a community cooperative, or will earn their income from what they can produce. In either case, this farm and related services should support itself and show a surplus that would benefit the co­operative and community.

The three­fold underlying purpose of this work force and farm is to demonstrate the power of co­operative farming, 2) establish new support systems, and 3) alter existing production techniques. At the same time, this directly can effect the availability of needed foods and expand the income base of the community.


It is obvious from the above description that this corporate work force will have many functions. They include: PRODUCTION, DEMONSTRATION, TRAINING AND SERVICE. These are not separate functions, but interact in such a way that each influences the effectiveness of the others.

PRODUCTION: The first requirement of this work force is that it be an economically viable production unit. It is essential that the objective of production to meet local food needs and/or an expanded economy is accomplished. Agriculture is foundational relative to the economy or many of the projects and the rural village replication sites.

Intensive crop and animal production schemes should be based on the needs o~ the community and extra­community markets that will bring the greatest profit into the community. Sophisticated production methods will be essential for the operation to be profitable and to catalyze improved productivity in other village farms

DEMONSTRATION : The corporate farm will be a demonstration on effective farming methods and the use of appropriate technology. It will utilize intensive methods of crop production, such as inter­cropping, multi­cropping, and dense plantings, in combination with proper soil management techniques. It will contain adequate facilities for intensive animal production appropriate to the area. At the same time, it will demonstrate ways of optimizing integration, such as using animal wastes for soil enrichment and plant wastes for animal and fish feed.

TRAINING: It is envisaged that the demonstration farm will be the mayor size of agricultural training, whether that be an apprenticeship program to train workers for expansion of cooperative farms or periodic seminars and field days to upgrade the Knowledge and skills of the existing farmers. For the former group, it cannot be over­emphasized to integrate that training into actual farm practice in running the demonstration farm.

SERVICE: For the corporate farm to function effectively a purchasing and marketing service will be necessary. A co­operative can provide an equipment pool, supplies at bulk rates, and a common marketing and transportation system. These services will be extended to village farmers through the farmers exchange service, on credit if necessary. Also animal health care and crop care which is available to the corporate farm can be extended on a cost basis to the village family farms.


The infra­structure described in this proposal provides a structural way of integrating agriculture effectively into the community through the guilds, commissions and the co­operative itself. In selecting the work forces, it may be desirable though not necessary to have representatives from each stake.

What will be crucial is an accurate record of every farm in each stake and a schedule for visits and preventive spraying of animals and possibly crops.


5. Intensify Cooperative Operations

Every village can alter agricultural patterns that have become entrenched through the divisiveness of individualism inherent in most agricultural enterprises by emphasizing cooperative and corporate farming enterprises. By combining efforts, tasks that defeat individual family enterprises can be accomplished, and by combining different skills and resources more complex operations, such as intensified horticulture and livestock, can produce large rewards.

Agricultural Trek Strategic Intents:

The major thrust of the Trek will be the establishment of an Intensive Corporate Farm that will both accelerate and insure continuity of agricultural productivity. These are a few guidelines that will be helpful in this endeavor.

Analysis and Farm Unit Survey:

One of the first tasks of the Agriculture Trek will be to thoroughly familiarize themselves with the agriculture situation of the project. Therefore the opening two work days will b spent surveying each farm unit in the project area, compiling a comprehensive picture of the agricultural enterprise of the village, with its supporting general data. A grid should be drawn to hold this information. The first Wednesday (day 3) should be spent in compiling the results of the survey, sifting the data, discerning the basic agricultural contradictions, and discerning the proposed plan for agricultural acceleration. Thursday and Friday would be spent in testing the feasibility of the plan before securing a community consensus.

Establishing The Farm Program:

Select intensively grown crops and animals that will be used to improve the nutrition of the local community and/or are readily marketable outside the community. Economic feasibility studies should be done on each potential crop and animal in order to determine how to reach the greatest return per acre. This will be necessary to determine how many farm workers can be supported. Based on analysis of 2 projects the following on site model demonstrates the type of study that needs to occur on each site considering the local situation.



Acreage in production

to support 5 men:

  1. Year-round climate - 2 acres with 3 crops per year

B. Shorter growing season - 4 acres.

Unit size to support 1 man:
  1. Broilers-1500 Birds

4 times per year

  1. Egg production - 1000 layers

Unit size to support 5 men:

  1. Piggery - 6 sows and 2 boar

  1. Dairy - 6 sows
INPUTS: Supplies (relatively costly) include seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, sprayers, hand tools and possibly small cultivator. Irrigation usually required. Supplies include feeds, pesticides, vaccines.

Facilities become major factor.

ICA July, 1977

Global Research Assembly Chicago

Agricultural Trek Strategic Intents


The initiation and expansion of this farm will require an intensive on­the­job training program. This will begin in the 2nd and 3rd week of the Trek, but wi'1 need to continue on a regular basis, including specialized training for

those who will be charged with animal or crop care extension. The curriculum rational for the trek considers both corporate and farming theory and skills. The daily rhythm that will be followed is work in the morning as teams and classes and field trips in the afternoon. At least one major accomplishment in both crop and animal farming needs to occur during this 2-week period. The work force candidates could be divided into 2 teams with 1 team working on crops the first week and the animal project the second week and one other team will do the reverse of this. The projects selected should be completed during the trek and be highly visible. The larger community can also participate in these projects on a work day. Appropriate types of projects that could be major events, upon completion during the trek, are as follows:


clearing and preparing a field and planting building a propagation structure (shade house in tropics; greenhouse in temp.) also starting seedlings

1. building an animal facility i.e.

piggery or chicken house, and stocking it

2. setting up a community livestock

dip/spray service and treating all

the livestock in the community


Due to the nature of the high management requirements and specialized

on-site training it will be crucial to engage local expertise in the project on an

ongoing basis. Liaison with technical assistance from institutions, industries,

and appropriate government agencies will be a great aid in the ongoing management and expansion of Agriculture.


The initiation of one or more support services such as an equipment pool or farm supplies center will greatly accelerate the shift towards co­operative

agriculture and utilization of appropriate technologies. If a credit system can be built into this service it will be more effective.


It is crucial that the community becomes involved in the awakening to new possibilities in improving agricultural productivity in the community. At the same time there needs to be events in which the community participates in the consensus to do the corporate farm and celebrates in that decision. This can be accomplished by holding an Agricultural Forum, Community Work Day, A Village Agricultural Fair, and form of Commissioning the New Agricultural Work Force.

Three week trek design goes here - chart

Agricultural Trek Strategic Intents

Issues yet to be Resolved in planning the Agricultural Acceleration Trek:

A plan for handling the following issues must be evolved before the trek is initiated:

  1. Guidelines and approaches for capitalizing the intensive agricultural farm, especially for securing the inputs for the intensive horticulture (seed, fertilizer, pesticides, etc.) and to enable the construction of at least one stock­raising facility.

2) Guidelines for organizing the Intensive Agricultural Unit's interna1 financing, money flow, and especially how to handle the question of support for one Work Force during the set­up and training period of the unit and before first production returns have been realized. Kawangware has treated this as primarily a training period and only paid minimum stipends after 3 months of training, and half stipends until full production was achieved.

3) Although a curriculum has been suggested, the specific training design for the Work Force after the trek leaves must also be created.

4) The relationship of the Agricultural Trek's work focused cr. increased production, to the purchasing and marketing coops proposed by the Commercial Trek, must yet be articulated.

5) Lastly the mechanics of funding the trek must be examined and implemented.

6 charts not scanned


The intent of this curriculum is to simplify the complexity that is agriculture, teach mayor points in a simplified way, be useable in a variety of situations in part or in whole, and include the unique aspects of the H.D.P. approach. It is built for use by the trek but is also applicable for continuing use by the projects and schools themselves. The curriculum is taught amidst the interworkings of three people: one, the village man; two, the technician; and three, the catalytic person. Eventually this curriculum could be expanded and practicalized to allow guild leaders and agricultural trainees to teach it themselves and to others.


In a very real way, the weight of Social Demonstration must be shared by all the people. The particular demands are to sustain the basic food sustenance and nutritional demands for a community and then to begin to expand these efforts toward integrated basic industries for agricultural profitability. The most essential element necessary for this to happen would be for corporateness to happen on a large scale as a sign to that specific community.

The intent of the Guild module is to have each farmer see the whole picture of farming on a corporate scale and how it ties into the totality of Social Demonstration, to have him understand that has efforts are a part of a complexly united Global Social Demonstration, and to then to allow him to focus upon the very particular necessary elements of the village plan for the purpose of formulating a 5 & 10 year plan.

Out of the Training module would come the understanding that every villager involved in the Agriculture guild could count on skill upgrading and as the necessity arises, he could be given specialized vocational skills that compliment the whole project; such as welding and various forms of farm management. The guilder would be given tools toward image creation whereby they are capable of giving the expert help they need at various stages of development, and eventually be able to imaginally demonstrate and pass on their trade and skills to others.

The intent of the Resources module is to have each farmer see how the power of consolidated and cohesive efforts can be concentrated into various farming enterprises, to have him realize the necessity of cooperation and pull together toward a common production factor, and to have him comprehend that all the resources of the community must be shared in order to fulfill his dream for the future.

The intent of the Planning Methods module is to teach the farmers how to build a consensus among the villagers that a certain number of acres must be planted each year toward various crop yields and to enable them to see a general plan evolve which cares for every last acre, to help them cultivate a sense of rhythm about the farming operation that signals life and death in a very real way through actual planting and harvesting, and to assist them to actualize a sense that they are a very important link in the Development of the new village of the future.


The intention of the CROPS section of the curriculum is to teach the local farmers the basic methods which they require to utilize all the available land to continually grow the best crops possible with the least risk, and to acquaint the farmers with the steps they can take to get help with the problems that they may encounter.

The Land Preparation module is intended to teach the farmers the value of utilizing fertilizers, conservation practices, good tillage techniques, and land clearing and leveling to get maximum yield from the land in both the short and long run and to stimulate the pride of the whole village through the highly visible results of organized, intentional land use. The agricultural trek team might utilize photographs which show the effects of adequate and inadequate amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on various crops, and they might prepare and plant a plot of poorly tilled, unfertilized land alongside a plot of well tilled, well fertilized land to let the villagers see the results first hand.

The Seeds module is intended to teach the farmers the methods for selecting, procuring, treating, and sowing seeds in order that they will be able to obtain high­quality seeds on their own, protect their seeds for a higher germination percentage, and sow their seeds in such a pattern as to achieve highest possible yields The agricultural trek team might demonstrate planting methods by planting small plots of various seeds and seed treatment by sowing a small plot with treated seeds next to a similar plot where the same type of seeds are planted without treatment, returning to observe the differences in germination.

The Equipment module is intended to introduce the farmers to appropriate equipment which could be utilized in the village to break loose new cultivation, production, or product possibilities and to impress the farmers with the importance of regular maintenance and prompt repair as well as the possibilities which accompany the decision to purchase equipment for a village owned equipment pool. The trek team might contact equipment manufacturers who would come to the village to demonstrate the use, maintenance, and repair of their equipment.

The Crop Care module is intended to teach the farmer how he can reduce his contingencies and protect his other input investments and thus see how he can partially control the factors which previously limited and sometimes completely destroyed his capability to produce a good crop. The trek team might demonstrate a rat poisoning method for the whole village which would show dramatically how the farmers could control the animal which eats one­fifth of the world's food crops each year.


The aim of this curriculum on animals for Human Development Projects is to teach methods and demonstrate effective facilities, upgrading of breeding stock, feeding methods, and disease prevention. It will train local villagers in methods of designing buildings, selecting and breeding stock, feeding and mixing feeds, and identifying, treating, and preventing diseases. It will train local village workers in obtaining access to local­regional expertise.

The Facilities module is intended to demonstrate methods which enable the community to provide itself with complete nutrition, to decide effective organization of living space, to provide agricultural commerce, and to attain a profitable scale of agricultural production. Types of things that will be done include controlling parasites, protecting crops, providing sanitation, and erecting animal buildings. Methods of effecting this curriculum include building poultry sheds, rabbit hitches, animal manure pits, and fencing.

The Breeding module is intended to teach ways of increasing stock quality, and improving stock production in the community. Methods for actuating this aim are trips to livestock stations, doing artificial insemination, and holding animal judging contests.

The feeding module is intended to demonstrate systems of feed harvesting storage, and processing that increase agricultural production. Methods of teaching this curriculum include making livestock feed, demonstrating feed grinding, and demonstrating storage methods.

The Disease module is intended to develop local expertise in prevention, immunization and access to local expertise. The overall effect will be to reduce the dependence of the village on animal contingency such as disease and parasites. Methods to accomplish this aim are drenching animals to kill parasites, and instituting a village barefoot veterinarian program.


Whether the farming unit is family or community based, self-conscious management has to be developed. As people begin to be trained in these practics, they need to meet together as a management unit for the sake of intensifying their skills. These managers then are an important resource within the community where such skills are lacking. This curriculum delimits training arenas for these emerging specialists.

Integrated Production Module deals with the obstacle of individualism militating against integrated and planned production. It can be overcome by farmers who store and hold in store houses both animals and crops to be sold by collective action at appropriate places and profitable prices, utilizing fully the by­products thereof. This will be demonstrated dramatically with a few farmers initially, helping them to obtain the necessary credit to permit them to wait for the sales.

Marketing of products at the best possible prices can be achieved through grading and inspection. Corporate action to pool produce and to transport will be promoted through corporate management methods. Studying marketing and field trips to marketing centers will help demonstrate the value of doing local marketing studies, to get the true value of their work.

Record Keeping Module gives the value of labor, fertilizer seed, equipment, bank interest, etc. as budgeted overagainst recorded sales. Periodic accountability is done to assess the profitability of all projects. This is demonstrated by a

few farmers and guilders learning this simple process, and then teaching it to other farmers.

Decision Making Module is the discernment and assessment at every stage of the business of agriculture. To see farmers corporately identify their mayor thrusts for the best ultimate advantage. This can be demonstrated in actual planning sessions which incorporate reflection on the community level.