You may know the fruit group as the flesh that grows around seeds. Some examples of fruits are tomatoes, bananas, squash, oranges, and pawpaw.

Most fruits provide minerals and vitamins and some provide a lot of energy. There are many different vitamins and minerals, and we require small amounts of them all, so It Is the best plan to share several different kinds of fruit In the family each day.

On this page 1ist the fruits common In your area and write the time of year they are harvested and the cost during that_______________ time.

Eat Some Fruit At Every Meal

( a little bit will do)


Leaves, roots, stems, and buds of plants are all part of the vegetable group, Some vegetables are potatoes, spinach, and carrots.

The vegetable group has even more vitamins and minerals than the fruits. People who don't eat enough vitamins might have problems such as coarse or dry hair; red rough skin; skin that bruises very easily, sore crusty eyelids; gums that are red and swollen; or even night blindness.

For example, vitamin A prevents night blindness. It Is found In dark leafy vegetables such as Casava leaves or Papaya leaves. What are some vegetables In your area that are dark and leafy? What time of year are they available?

Eat Some Vegetable At Every Meal

(a little bit will do)






All foods that have seeds that grow exposed are the bread, cereal and seed group. Some foods In this group are rice, wheat, and corn, and foods that are made from the flour of these seeds.

This group of foods Is mostly an energy group and supplies some vTtamin5 and minerals, but only If you eat the whole grain. That means rice that has been left brown, wheat that is ground whole or eaten as cracked wheat, and corn that Is ground whole. This group can also have body building qualities when eaten with foods In the legume group, (rice and dahl, wheat bread made with soy flour).

Someone who doesn't eat enough of this group of foods may feel a lack of energy, or their tongue may become swollen.

What are some foods In this group available here?







_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
Grains Are Usually The Cheapest Source Of Energy ­ They Must Be Eaten At Every Meal

Foods that are seeds grown In pods are foods In the legume group. Some legumes are peanuts, beans and peas.

This group of foods, when eaten with foods from the seed group, makes good body building foods, and the combination is especially Important where very little food from animals Is eaten. People who don't eat enough of this group of foods may experience tiredness or lack of energy.

List some common legumes or beans available to you.



















One Measure of Legume for Every Three Measures Of Grain Is A Good Combination And Should Be Eaten At Every Meal.


All foods that come from animals are animal foods. Some animal foods are cheese, milk, eggs, chickens, and fish.

Animal foods are body building foods, but when you don't eat enough energy foods, body building foods will be used for energy instead. This group gives iron and some vitamins. Body building foods are needed for growth and helping the body fight infections. Someone who doesn't eat much food from animals can get body building foods by eating legumes with seeds, cereals, and breads.

What are the foods from animals available to you?

Animals and Fish

available to you



















You Don't Need Much, But Some Food From Animals Should Be Eaten At Every Meal.

Using the five fingers of a hand makes it easy to remember the five food groups. It Is easy for mothers to plan something from each food group to every meal. If mothers do so, their families will have better vitality and well be less likely to become ill.

Eating some of each food group at every meal will insure that a person has enough of the energy foods, building foods, and protective foods that he needs.



The five food groups contain energy foods, body building foods, and protection food.


Energy foods help us to move about and perform work. Energy is measured In calories or energy units. Some people need more calories (energy units).

Young children need calories (energy units) to grow and play. As a person grows old he doesn't need as many calories (energy units).

People who do hard work like digging in a field need more calories (energy units) than people who sit most of the time.

People who iive In cold places need more calories (energy units) to keep warm than people who live In warm places.

Pregnant Women need extra calories (energy units) to build the new cells (building blocks) that make up the new baby. She is also growing in size and needs more calories (energy units) for movement and work.

Nursing women need more calories (energy units) to help her body produce the right amount of milk for her baby.

On the following page is a table of energy requirements per day for different ages and types of work.



. .

I to 2 years 1000

3 to 4 years 1200

5 to 6 years 1400

7 to 8 years 1600

11 to 12 years ­ girls 2200

11 to 12 years ­ boys 2000

13 to 17 years ­ girls 2500

15 to 18 years ­ boys 3000

pregnancy 2900

lactation (nursing women) 3400

adult man 2400

adult man ­ very active 3000

adult woman 2200

adult woman ­ very active 2500

There is some energy in all foods. Most people get most of their energy from grains and legumes. It takes almost exactly a kilogram of dry grain and legumes a day to provide 3,400 calories for an active nursing woman.

Body Building foods (proteins) are needed to:

1. Grow ­ when a child is growing he needs body building foods.

2. Repair and maintain body parts ­ the cells (building blocks of the body ) are always changing and getting worn out. They have to be repaired and replaced. When the body Is hurt, body building foods are needed to repair It.

3. Keep the body in working order ­ your body gets protein (body building foods) when you eat these foods.

­ animal products group ­ animal products give you complete body building units. You get body building units when you eat eggs, milk, meat, cheese and fish. Young babies get body building units from their mother's milk.

­ breads, cereals, seed group and legume group ­ when eaten separately usually give only a part of body building unit. When you eat them together you get a whole body building unit.

Here are some bread, cereal, seed group and legume group examples. They can be eaten together In any combination as long as you eat one from each group In the following proportions:

1. Use 1 1/2 cups grain for 1/2 cup beans (ratio 3:1)

2. Use some milk with every dish that is mainly beans


There are many common combinations of seed and legume groups served In every part of the world. Some of these combinations are listed here:

rice and bean casserole wheat crackers and pea soup

wheat and soyflour bread bread and peanut butter

corn and soyflour bread sesame salt on bean casserole

wheat bread and baked beans roasted sunflower seeds and peanuts

rice and dahl (lentil) curry rice and soy bean curd.

rice and peas

corn tortillas and kidney beans

Body Building Foods cont'd


Whole Wheat, Rye, Oats Blackeyed Peas, Split

Belgar, Brown Rice, Macaroni Peas, Full Lentils

Barley Buckwheat, Noodles Chick Peas, Mung Beans

Wheat Bran, Millet, Grain Lima, Soybean Curd

Sorgham (Tofu), Kidney, Navy

Protective foods help to protect your body from getting sick and help It work well. It Is the vitamins and minerals In the protective foods which help us. In the following pages is a chart with some of these vitamins and minerals and some helpful Information about them.




Breast milk is the perfect food for a baby. It has the right amount of protein (body building food) the baby needs to grow. It also has plenty of calories (energy food) as well as vitamins and minerals (protection food). The milk that comes from a mother's breast the first few days is thin and watery and is called colustrum. It Is very good for babies, so they should be put to their mother's breast as soon as they are born. Breast milk alone is enough for the first six months of a child's life. The mother needs to eat more protein and protective foods which she nurses.

When a baby is 6 months old, he has become so big that breast milk is not enough by Itself. If a child is to continue to grow, he must also start eating a thin porridge. His mother can make the porridge by boiling maize, millet, casava or rice In water. This porridge should be given once a day when the baby Is most hungry. When he is eating the porridge well, he can have a cup of it 2 or 3 times a day

In 2 or 3 weeks when the baby is eating plain porridge with some body building protein foods need to be mixed with It. Animal products such as dry milk powder and egg should be added. The mother can also use the liquid in which she cooks the legumes(seeds In pods) In place of plain water.

Other foods the mother should add to the porridge as the baby gets older are pounded groundnuts, groundnut butter, mashed skinned beans and pounded fresh fish. At least once a day the baby should eat some protection­food such as dark green leaves or fruit.

The mother should be sure that the food she adds to the porridge are cooked, mashed and mixed in well. Because mother's milk is an important was the baby gets body building protein, a mother could go on breast feeding her child until he is eighteen months or two years old.



There Is a formula on this page to figure out the amount of grain needed to provide enough energy to everyone in the village for a whole year.

Here are some facts you must know to understand the formula:

A calorie is a measurement of energy that you get from food.

3,000 cal per day is the number of calories used by a man at active work.

365 days is the number of days In a whole year

3400 cal is the number of calories provided by a kilogram of grains such as rice, corn, wheat or sorghum and is approximately the number provided by a kilogram of legumes.

Here Is the formula:

3,000 cal x 365 days x population of village

3400 cal

= kilograms of grain needed each year

The local farmers usually know almost exactly how much land Is being used for crops and how much of each crop Is produced for each section of land, so It Is possible to figure out how much food Is grown altogether by the farmers of the village. Compare this amount to the amount that the formula says you need ­In a year. When there Is less food produced than Is needed, plans must be made to Increase production on land already farmed or to Increase the amount of land being farmed. Where there Is more than enough food being grown, some of the food can be sold for cash outside the village, and plans can be made to grow a variety of crops to Improve the diet available In the community.

The health guild usually works with the agriculture guild to make plans that will guarantee enough food will be grown to feed the whole village. Next the health guild must work with the commerce guild to be sure that the food produced by the village farmers will be made available at a just price to people In the village who have little land and must purchase their food. Working together, the guilds can be sure that everyone In the village has enough food to do his work.


1. You need to eat food from ell five food groups at every meal.

2. Eat fruits and vegetables raw to get the most food value. Those which are cooked should be cooked with the skins on.

3. Liquids from cooking should be saved and used in soups or drinks.

4. Whole grain is better for you than grain which has been milled, hulled or bleached. Eat brown rice instead of polished rice. Eat whole wheat flour Instead of white bleached flour.

5. "Enriched" means the flour has had some of its nutrients put back into it. It is better for you than white bleached flour but not as good as whole grain flour.

6. Darker green leaves and darker orange color of vegetables and fruits have more vitamins (such as Vitamin A) than leaves which are light green and vegetables and fruits which are light orange.

7. Sprouted beans are a good source of Vitamin C.

8 If fruits and vegetables are likely to be contaminated, they must be disinfected or pealed before eating raw. To disinfect, wash thoroughly, soak for 30 minutes In pure water with added disinfectant (Clorox or Lugol's solution). Rinse thoroughly.


A survey is taken by going to many or all of the houses In the village and asking the same questions at each house. For a family nutrition survey, you world ask in every house about what foods were eaten by the members of the household during the past 24 hours. In our survey we would then ask how the food was prepared and whether the family grew that food Itself or purchased that food.

In our nutrition survey, we also measure the arm circumference of children between the ages of I to 5. This gives us Information about how well these children have been fed during the past year.

After you have filled in the part of the survey that the people give answers to, you can find all the foods they mentioned In a "food value table" and find out how many calories and how many grams of protein were eaten by a family that day.

By thinking about the answers we find to our questions, we can figure out what problems of nutrition still remain to be worked on by the health guild. Here are some examples of what we might find out on the survey and what we would then know about the village.

If you find that very few families

are eating enough calories and many

children have very thin arms . then you know that the village must

work very hard on Increasing food


If you find that most families

have enough to eat, but a few

families do not have enough .. then you know that there Is enough

food produced, but you must figure

out how to help Individual families

Increase their family Income

If you find that few families

can understand the five food

groups . then you know !that you must Improve

your system for teaching about five

food groups at every meal.

If you find that families know

about the five food groups

but do not eat these foods then you know that you must teach

people how to find or grow the

varieties of food they need.


(refer to section on surveys in Vitality Maintenance Chapter)

1. The left­hand portion of the chart is to be completed during the conversations with the family. The right two columns are for calculations to be made during the evaluation.

2. Record all food consumed by the family, even If not prepared by the homemaker (don't forget to Include mother's milk if child Is nursing).

3. Determine amounts as close as possible. Make estimated In cups (250ml.) The amount which can be held In one (woman's) hand Is approximately one­half cup; two hands cupped together (double handful) holds 1 cup.

If mixed food is prepared, find out exactly what went into it ­ such as

5. Children's Arm Measurements: measure arms of all children ages 1­5 years. Instructions follow for preparing and using measuring tape. Record on page following Survey Chart, the number of children In each family and the color the arm band measured for each child.



Tape can be made from thin cardboard, or any non­stretching material. It should be 1cm wide and 40cm long. It is given three colors.

example of colors: red ­ severe malnutrition

yellow ­ mild malnutrition

green - normal nutrition

Choose color for the malnourished area that signifies danger In that culture.


Measuring the upper arm of the child is most helpful if done every 6 months, for 1­5 year olds only.

Tell the child to stand relaxed with his arm at his side.

Place the tape around the middle of his upper arm.

Be careful the tape Is not too tight or too loose (should be snug but not dent the arm).

Note the color the child's measurement Is and record on sheet labeled "arm band measurement"

It is good to record the total village data on a chart and place it in a public space. Compare these results to the results of a survey done six months previously to see how the nutrition of the children has improved over that period of time.


purpose ­ to show new foods, show new ways to grow food

­ to have food for community kitchen

­ to encourage home gardens

Basket ­ give to families to take home. Good for plants like tomatoes. May need to stake vine plants.

Barrel ­ any available container can be used. Put 1­2 Inches of loose stones in bottom, add sold. Have holes in bottom for drainage. Have near house and water with used kitchen water.

Flower Beds ­ use areas next to house. Easy to water and can be protected from animals.

Window Box ­ can grow small vegetables, like lettuce, onions. Good for elders and crowded places. Need some sun during day.

Plant crop that supplies needed nutrition for village. The nutrition survey will tell you what is most important.

The garden needs to be near water (irrigation) or have enough rainfall. There needs to be good drainage.

Fencing may be needed if small animals or children are a problem.




This is a way to plant seeds and have plants ready to put in the ground as soon as the present crop is harvested.


Leaves, weeds, vegetables and fruit peels, fish and chicken bones, tea leaves, cornstalks, animal manure, ashes. Bedding and droppings from small animals (chickens, rabbits, goats)

Protective cover needed in rainy areas

There will be files and Insects. Have away from houses

Organic Compost Box

layer: sawdust


dry leaves

wet garbage sawdust

1. finished

2. working

3. for turning

Turn between box 2 and 3 every couple days. Water compost if is is dry.

Keep damp, not wet. Add some wet and some dry material. Sawdust is a filler.

Use other local things for sawdust, like chopped straw.

Compost is usable in 3­4 weeks.

Use compost material to add to soil, and make plants grow better.

Good Compost Feeds The Soil For Better Garden Grown Crops.


Food is what we eat. Nutrition is how our bodies use food. Both are important to body­building and to staying healthy. Good nutrition is necessary for people to be able to take part in the community. Calories (energy units) are what give you energy to participate fully in the community.

There is a need then, in Global Social Demonstration for proper nutrition. A Community Kitchen one way to teach and enable a community to feel the difference that getting enough of the right foods can make. To begin with you need to decide the nutritional needs of the people in the village by looking at the babies, children, youth and adults through the survey. It is easier to get food to people after you decide what foods they need.

To begin, choose a food that is already eaten by most of the people. Something simple like bread with a spread is a good start. Bread with peanut butter Is an example. After supplying calories (energy foods), body building foods (protein) should be of concern. Protein's are very important because they keep the body strong and healthy, repair. it when it Is hurt, and give the building blocks needed for growth. Proteins (body building foods ) are in animal foods such as eggs, yogurt, cheese, fish and also In legumes when eaten together with foods made from grain such as cereal or bread or rice.. Bread with peanut butter, tortillas and beans, rice with lentils are examples.

After calories (energy food) and proteins (body building foods) are made available, vitamins and minerals (protective foods) are needed. One way to insure getting several vitamins and mineral s is to 11st the twenty most common foods, the cost of these foods and when they are available during the year. Try to list foods in all of the Five Food Groups. Be sure to use foods from each group.

The Community Kitchen doesn't need to have complete meals or a building in which to get a nutrition program started. The most simple community kitchen is located in a house that is not otherwise fully used. Plan for enough cooking space so that several people can work together in the kitchen. Arrange the kitchen so it will be an example of good food storage and cleanliness.

The first step might be to make snacks for the guild meeting or meals for a work day. Rice balls with soy bean filling or bread and peanut butter are examples. You can then begin to make meals for the pre­school and start the mother­infant feeding program. If food Is a critical need in the village, you may decide to offer a daily meal for everyone. As a general rule, it is best to offer a daily meal in the context of some other structure such as literacy classes, daily guild meetings, or work core meeting.

Community Kitchen staff must be willing to get people to try some new foods. Keep in mind that most people don't eat a lot of new food the first time they taste it. Nutrition teachers have learned that you should offer a new food at least six different times before you conclude that the people of the village will not learn to like it. In addition to teaching good nutrition habits, the community, kitchen trains the community in sanitation and large group events.

Once the program is going well, the community may decide it is necessary to build a place planned just for the community kitchen. The building should be built as simply as possible, using local materials. It should show that a building can be made which keeps insects and rats out of the food storage and cooking area. A good latrine should be provided nearby. A kitchen garden will not only supply some of the foods eaten, but will keep the appearance of the area good. In some climates, only a floor, roof and benches are required to give people a place to eat. If it is convenient and nice to look at, people will be encouraged to use the Community Kitchen as a Community Meeting Place.


The following list of equipment is meant as a resource. The exact equipment needed in each project will depend on local cooking practices and village size. Keep in mind that equipment is not necessary to begin the community kitchen dynamic and will probably be acquired gradually,

Large Equipment: Burners with table



Food preparation table

Shelves for dishes and cooking equipment

Enclosed food storage area

Small Equipment: Large pots

Large frying pans

Mixing bowls

Cooking utensils


Rice Cooker

Grinding stones

Chopping block


Garbage bucket with lid

Trash bucket


Pot holders


Broom and mop

Dish cloths




Sanitary practices in the kitchen are necessary to prevent the spread of disease

WORKERS Wear clean clothes or clean aprons

Wash hands with soap and water before beginning work and after

using the toilet

Clean and cut finger nails

People with cuts and sores on hands should not work In kitchen

KITCHEN Clean stove, food preparation areas and eating areas after each

meal or snack

Mop floor once a day

Clean food storage areas as necessary

Use soap or disinfectant for all cleaning

COOKING Prepare and cook food on tables raised up off floor

Wash food preparation utensils {knives, spoons, etc.) before

using on a second food.

DISH Scrape all food into garbage bucket

WASHING Wash dishes In soapy water with an added disinfectant such as

chlorine bleach (2 Tlb/gallon)

Rinse dishes in very hot water

Allow dishes to dry in drainer ­ must be dry before storing

GARBAGE Have 2 containers ­ one for food garbage ­ one for trash (paper

cans, bottles)

Garbage containers must have a lid

See sanitation section for disposal methods



Foods such as grains, flours, sugar and beans should be kept in jars or tins with tight fitting lids. These should stand on a shelf above the floor in a cool, dry storeroom.


Keep vegetables and fruits in baskets on a raised shelf. All vegetables and fruits should be well washed and disinfected If necessary, before use (see helpful facts about food) Refrigeration, If available, will preserve these foods longer. Vegetables and fruits can be preserved for long term storage by drying. Wash foods thoroughly and cut off rotten spots. Put them in the sun, in a protected place, on a mat for several days until completely dry. When dry, they can be stored in tightly closed tins In a cool, dry storeroom.


Meats are best kept under refrigeration and will stay fresh for 2­4 days. If refrigeration is not available, large pieces of meat (I kilo or more) and whole, gutted chicken can be kept for 24 hours by the following method. Boll meat until well done, immediately after purchase, Keep in same water and same pan ­ covered. Every 12 hours bring to a boil (not simmer) for 10 minutes. Boll it again immediately before use. In freezing climates, meats can be stored outside In protected covering.


Milk Is best kept under refrigeration. If this is not available, milk can be kept by boiling for 20 minutes Immediately after purchase, pouring into a clean jug, covering well and keeping in a clean place. If milk curdles, it can be used for making cheese or pour on garden for fertilizer.


1. Limit of size ­ 3 feet

2. Use chicken wire as shelves

3. Build side frame with l" by 2" slats

4. Build top and floor with wood

PRINCIPLE: The water drips over the cloth, down through the charcoal and is cooled by the air.

The pre­school feeding program is designed to provide half the calories and all the protein needed for a child 3 ­ 6 years old. This can usually be done by serving one portion from each of the 5 food groups. The foods are given as a snack and meal, as children cannot eat so much at one meal.

Below are 3 sample menus. In the blank column, fill in possible menus for your pre­school.

U.S.D.A. surplus commodity foods are sometimes available through C.A.R.E. or Catholic Relief. While their use is justified in the face of severe malnutrition, their use must not be allowed to dampen resourcefulness and ingenuity in using local resources. Local people­need to be trained in use of locally grown foods rather than imported commodities.




WSB is a supplementary food obtainable from Catholic Relief Services around the world. It is made from 73% wheat and wheat products, 20 $­soy bean flour, 4% refined soy bean oil and 3% vitamins, minerals and iodized salt.


WSB is pre­cooked, making it easy to use and easy to digest. It has very little taste so that each community using it can add to it the flavoring it likes best. Recipes for its use can be obtained from Catholic Relief Services.


50 grams of WSB dally can supply most of the vitamins and minerals required by a 1­3 year old child. Its protein (a good quality mixture of cereal and legume protein) contributes over 40% of the child's dally requirement. However, It is not a complete weaning food because it is not very high In calories


It is possible to find food value tables that list the food values for the specialty foods eaten in your area of the world. Inquire at a local hospital food department, or the National Nutritional Institute. The chart below will provide an estimate that will allow you to proceed until you can get more adequate information.



1. Nutrition Rehabilitation, Its Practical Application, Joan Koppert S.R.N., Tri­med Books Ltd., London 1977

2. Community Participation and Nutrition, (Kassa Project, India) UNICEF

3. Pediatric Priorities in the Developing World, David Morley, M.D. M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Butterworths, London, 1973.

4. Diet for a Small Planet, Frances Moore Lappe, Ballantine Books, 1971

5. Sun Dry your Fruits and Vegetables, United States Department of Agriculture, 1958. A Global Handbook

6. Food Scorecard, Center for Science in Public Interest, 1779 Church Street, N.W. Washington, D.C.

7. Applied Nutrition Program, (Children Services Program, India) UNICEF.

8. Uqonjwawa Ukosefu Wa Chakula Bora, East African Literature Bureau, Dar Es Sataam.

9. "Nutritional Planning and Development," AID War on Hunger, State Department, Washington, D.C., May, 1977

10. Nutrition for Developing Countries, Maurice King, David Morley, Oxford University Press, London, 1972.

Food Tables Available

11. Nutrition Value of Foods, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Home and Garden Bulletin # 72, Revised April 1972.

12. Composition of Foods, Agriculture Handbook # 8, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Revised 1963.

13. Food Composition Tables, (for Caribbean use), Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1974.

14. Food Composition Tables, (Recommended for use in Philippines), Food and Nutrition Research Center, National Science Development Board, Manila, Philippines.