1952 - 1994


The Development of the Intellectual, Spirit and Social Methods


The Technology of Participation


The Ecumenical Insititute and The Institute of Cultural Affairs



Beret E. Griffith

with the Contributions of

Many ICA Colleagues

August 1992

Revisions Contributed by Brian Stanfield, April 1993

Addition of Chart 1952-1992 by Brian Stanfield, September 1994

© Copyright, 1992,1993, 1994 by Beret E. Griffith

From the

Song Of A Man Who has Come Through

Not I, not I, but the wind that blows through me!

A fine wind is blowing the new direction of time.

If only I let it bear me, carry me, if only it carry me!

If only I am sensitive, subtle, oh, delicate, a winged gift!

If only, most lovely of all, I yield myself and am borrowed

By the fine, fine wind that takes its course through the

chaos of the world

Like a fine, an exquisite chisel, a wedge-blade inserted;

If only I am keen and hard like the sheer tip of a wedge

Driven by invisible blows.

The rock will split, we shall come at the wonder, we shall

find the Hesperides.

D. H. Lawrence


The Chronological History is an acknowledgement of the contributions of many people to the ongoing creation of the Intellectual, Spirit and Social Methods and The Technology of Participation developed by The Ecumenical Institute (O:E) and The Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA). During the past forty years many people have contributed to the development of these methods. Spiritual depth, intellectual breadth and an underlying social consciousness of care and compassion for people were a part of the methods development from the very beginning. People were concerned that communities and organizations find ways to work and learn together in a spirit filled climate.

The intent of the Methods History is to acknowledge the contributions of the many, many people. It is also intended to be a documentation of the various pieces that make up the rich mosaic of methods that so many people helped to develop. Colleagues all around the world are continuing to create methods that bring a conscious awareness to responsible participation in groups and organizations. Perhaps it will also be of interest to people who have not been a part of the journey of early methods creation and are curious about the background of the ICA as a result of being a part an "eventfulness" sponsored by the ICA or the many colleagues who continue to work with and refine the methods.

This history became a part of my MA project/thesis in Organization Development and Transformation from the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco as a result of a conversation held during a work session at ICA West in Phoenix in September 1991. Twenty­one ICA West facilitators gathered in Phoenix to consider "What's Next?" for the training of ourselves and the training of new ICA West facilitators. We were a mixture of very experienced facilitators and people just beginning the journey. We came with a sense that what we were about to do would empower all of us.

One of our working sessions began by taking a look at the history of the development of ICA methods from the perspective and experience of people in the room. This produced a lot of excitement, interest and gratefulness from the people participating and a sense that it would be great to have work continue on the history. On the spot I decided that I would somehow incorporate this continued work into my project and I used the input from this session as a foundation for creating the chronological history.

Following the pull-together of the data generated in Phoenix, I began going through my own historical files to gather more information, made many additions to the chronology and began to request input from other colleagues around the world. As I gathered additional data I decided to expand the chronology to include personal recollections. I did a brainstorm of people I felt would have the memory of when and how methods originated and created a rough draft of the chronology to send to colleagues for additions and corrections.

The process of gathering information from colleagues was done through electronic mail on ECONET and postal mail. In January of 1992 the draft was sent to forty­one ICA contacts on ECONET. Many of those electronic mail addresses represent additional people. Seventy­five people attended an ICA West Members Meeting at the end of January. The draft was given to all of them. In early February drafts were sent by postal mail to twenty­four people from the original brainstorm list of people. In mid­February draft copies were sent to seven people who were at the Wilder Forest ICA Network Association meeting who had not already received the mailing. In April it was sent to all of the people in the Western United State who are interested in the ongoing community experiment of the ICA.

It has been a wonderful adventure to receive input to the chronology. A comment that came from Lyn Mathews Edwards, the widow the founder, Joseph Mathews who died in 1977, was a particular delight to receive. Lyn said, "The Chronological History is the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. A great gift. I will review and send to you any additions, etc." This came via Econet mail from Jim Troxel. Another comment from George West in Lima, Peru came early on in the process and encouraged me. "This is a great project you have going. It's a good spirit exercise to reflect on these things, and fun. I am sending you what I have and will look for more time to work on it next week."

Thank-you to those of you who conversed, wrote, called, faxed, and e-mailed information to me: Brian Stanfield, Jim Troxel, Barbara & Bill Alerding, George West, Jean Watts (she send a bag of old tape recordings!), Marilyn Oyler, Ann Ensinger, Sandra True, Nan Grow, Sookja Hutcheons, Lela Jahn, Pam & Terry Bergdall, John Burbidge, Jim Wiegel, Edith Byers, Li Dona Wagner, Susan Wegner, Burna Dunn, Pat Tuecke, David Thomas, Catherine Welch, Dorothea Jewell, Marie Sharp, Dick & Gail West, Linda Hamilton, Don Elliott, Martha Lee Sugg, Ieva Wool and Sue Wegner.

And special mention to those people who were at the meeting in Phoenix, September 1991, when this all got started. If Marilyn Oyler had decided to do something else that morning I doubt very much that I would have been the one to gather this information.

Colleagues whose memories were the foundation of this work were: Dorothea Jewell, Pat Tuecke, Carol Fleischman, Marilyn Oyler, Dan Groves, Hubert Fulkerson, Angelica Rodriquez, John Oyler, Teresa Lingafelter, Robert Lingafelter, Raul Jorquera, Shakuntala Jadhav, Kay Fulkerson, Rick Walters, Leslie Jackson, Kim Epley, Linda Hamilton, Ken Whitney, Gary Forbes, John Adam, Jim Wiegel and Kate Ward. Thanks.

The first draft was completed in August of 1992 and Jean Watts took copies with her to the ICA conference in Prague. Following the conference I began receiving "corrections" and additional input to the history. Since work for the MA was completed, I had to decide whether this work would continue, and as you can see the response was "YES." Brian Stanfield and Lyn Edwards particularly provided continued input and support. In October 1992, along with a lot of input for the first revision, he wrote, "Greetings! This is a real gem you are working on, and so important that is be captured before memories grow dim." In April 1993 I completed the first revision.

These few pages represent so much human experience and knowledge that has only been lightly brushed over in this kind of a record. It has been a wonderful experience to wander around in old documents, dig through boxes and be thankful for a huge old file cabinet full of treasures. At the same time there is so much being created by people around the world that the information here, representing the past few years is minuscule compared to what people are actually doing in "on the spot" responding to the needs of their local situations. What follows is the historical record, so far, tracking the development of the of the Intellectual, Spirit and Social Methods and the Technology of Participation. Material marked with an asterisk * indicates that additional information is found in the Chronological History Text Expanding Information (this is graduate school language for "more stuff"). This work may be a part of more extensive documentation on the work of the ICA. Time will tell.

Well time did tell and The Archive Project was started in February 1993 with Lyn Mathews Edwards as the Project Director. Many colleagues have been helping Lyn. Audrey Ayres, Betty Pesek, Marge and Leroy Philbrook, and Delores Horn have been "regulars," helping to document the enormous amount of material collected. Week long archives helpers, Wanda & George Holcombe, Sandra True, Charles & Doris Hahn, Bill and Barbara Alerding and Juana Foss have provided practical work and spirit support. Then there are the untold "Archive Angles" who support the project in any way they can.

The adventure continues. Just last week Lela Jahn and Don Bayer had me hunting around for my CSII-A (the Community and Family Course) notes, and Betty Pesek found the teaching manual in the archives and is sending it to them.

Beret E. Griffith

September, 1994


When you are dealing with methodology you are dealing with

the rubric of being itself. Which is to say that methodology

never stands on its own feet. It does not exist. It exists only in relationship to that which is unsynomous with the self.

And when that is forgottenthen you have the kind of nonsense

in which we educate people just to educate people.

JWM, Collegium, Summer Academy, 1969

THE 1950's

1952 Campus Ministry Experiment existed within the Christian Faith and Life Community at the University of Texas, Austin, TX.

Visited the Iona Community in Scotland as a model for combining the spiritual and the material in community living. Also visited the Taize Community as a model for corporate life and mission.

1953 Community of male students formed at the University of Texas.

1954 Women students added to the community.

The World Council of Churches delegates meeting in Evanston, IL passed a resolution to establish the Evanston Institute for Ecumenical Studies in Evanston, IL, a "lay academy for world churchmen."

1955 Research on culture and community resulted in the decision that mission of the Ecumenical Institute (EI) would be the renewal of the local church.

Parish Ministers Colloquy (PMC) created, a course held two days a week for four weeks.

"Bug Model" created. A description of operations of any group with a task.*

1956 Established the Institute for Ecumenical Studies*, Evanston, IL. Dr. Walter Leibrecht a German Lutheran Theologian was the first Dean.

Research and development done on practices in the arena of worship. Daily Office, the central common liturgy, was created. Experimented with the use of contemporary poetry in worship, i.e. e.e. Cummings and T.S. Elliot. Experimented with secular language in worship.

1957 Research done in the arena of Existential Theology. The Religious Studies curriculum is developed.*

1958 Research and development done on the practice of discipline and how to create comprehensive operating structures for an intentional community.

1959 Research done on the concept of mission in the local church. The phrase "The Church is Mission" was coined and the Christian Faith and Life Community began to focus work outside of itself. Sixteen theological studies were combined into the Religious Studies One (RS-I)* "The Twentieth Century Theological Revolution" course.

THE 1960's

1960 Image of three tasks invented for the Order of the Ecumenical Institute 1958-1962:

1. CONTEXTUAL RE-EDUCATION worked toward achieving "new breakthroughs in methodology and curricula in order to allow each individual to respond creatively to the complex demands of living in the twentieth century."

2. COMMUNITY RE-FORMULATION worked toward assisting "the urban community to realize its potential for effective decision-making and self-sustained structures in order to overcome apathy and a sense of powerlessness."

3. SPIRIT RE-MOTIVATION worked toward releasing the human imagination "from cynicism and despair in order to see the possibilities for significant individual engagement in human history." (the ecumenical institute, 1970, estimated date).

Practical research done on how a community of people could live and work together missionally.

Basic images of model building formed through study of Ethics by D. Bonhoeffer & Images of Man by C. Wright Mills.

RS-1 taught on a regular basis.

Cultural Studies I (CS-I), "The Twentieth Century Cultural Revolution" course was created and taught.

Corporate Study Method developed. This was a dialogue between the author of a work and the group with a focus on what the author was saying and the experience of the participants.

Charting Method developed for use in the study of written material. It provided a visual picture of the material being studied and emphasized the structure of the work.

1962 January, last "RS-1" taught in Texas before the move to Chicago.

Joseph Wesley Mathews (JWM) called to be Dean of the Evanston Institute for Ecumenical Studies, by Edgar Chandler, Executive Director of the Chicago Council of Churches, to fill the vacancy left by Leibrecht. Seven families from the Christian Faith & Life Community at the University of Texas, Austin, Texas accepted the directorship of the Evanston Institute of Ecumenical Studies.

1963 Decision made to move to the West Side of Chicago.

Seven families affiliated with the Ecumenical Institute bought the old Bethany Seminary at 410 South Trumbull in the heart of the West Side. They brought with them their belongings, their children, and their desire to set up an urban center for improving human communities. (Ulrich, 1976).

The 5th City Human Development Project began in a Chicago west side neighborhood [Community Reformulation Project, 1963 language].(The Institute of Cultural Affairs,1979).

The name 5th City grew out of the sense of people that:

their "city" was going to be entirely different from the four socio-geographic "cities" that make up the modern urban complex: downtown, inner city, neighborhoods, suburbs. This new community was going to be based not on geography, but on the sheer decision of its citizens. It would be a `5th City,' built to bring hope and renewal to cities everywhere.

(5th City, Rebirth of the Human City, 1973).

First formal courses taught outside of Chicago, the PMC Boston.

Geneva Offices written at 74th Annual Geneva Conference.

The Geneva Offices were in fact created at the YM/YW [Young Men's/Young Women's] conference at George Williams College in Wisconsin. In fact, George Williams college is located at/on Lake Geneva, which is how they got their name. Most people think they were named for something to do with Geneva, Switzerland, site of the World Council of churches, but that's not true. (Troxel, 1992).

Five Geneva Offices were written as a part of the RS-I courses held at Lake Geneva and were designed to fit the five sections of the RS-I format.

Trips made to Europe and Africa for geo­social analysis.

1964 The 5th City Grid was created. Determined boundaries within which work could be done effectively. Sixteen square blocks, with 5000 people were divided into "stakes," which handled specific neighborhood issues. (5th City, Rebirth of the Human City, 1973).

The Institute of Cultural Affairs formed as a program division of The Ecumenical Institute. (Celebrating a Quarter Century of Service, 1979).

Local cadres were formed in Boston and New Orleans.


The Summer Research Assemblies were created. The month of July became the symbolic beginning of the year.

The Summer Programs ­ whether training or research ­ were times when the previous years experimentations of different methods were synthesized, assimilated, crystallized and frequently put in "manual forms." For example, at the end of summer `69, each group took one course of the Academy and wrote up the manual on it. (Troxel, 1992).

FIRST SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: The first training summer was primarily for teachers and students and the focus was on education.

Created the Community Reformulation Methods and the Five Presuppositions of Community Reformulation:

Presupposition 1. A community reformulation project must be conducted in a limited geographical area.

Presupposition 2. Community reformulation must deal with the depth human problem to be found in the area.

Presupposition 3. The key to the identity building phase of community reformulation is the intentional use of symbols.

Presupposition 4. Community reformulation must deal with all of the critical problems of a community simultaneously.

Presupposition 5. Community reformulation must deal with all age levels in the community. (Image, 1967).

Created the method of Gridding for seeing rational patterns in geography and produced the Global Grid. Gridding developed as a way for the group to form a consensus in relationship to a particular geography and was a symbolic and practical step for taking responsibility for the geography. (Methods Manual, p.17).

The world grid [Global Grid] came into existence with the Nation and World course. It was a way of appropriating the world and describing the complex and dynamic inter-relationships of the given and emerging continents of the globe. To describe these relationships the globe was divided into three spheres and nine continents....(the grid) establishes the symbolic boundaries between the nine continents. (Roundtable, Quarter II, 1981-82).

The globe was seen as the context for action and all action was seen as interrelated. The gridding sequence was: Continent, Area, Region, Metro, Polis, Micro, Parish (6 in every micro), Communities, Stake (5,000 people/6 stakes in a community), Blocks (200 people), Family, Me. (Cultural Studies 1, Global Academy course notes, 1972).

Developed the Manifesto and Problemat.

When I arrived in `65 we were operating out of the following model for planning and the one we used to create the 5th City model.






The goals were simply a flip of the problemat i.e. resolve the problem. (West, 1992).

The Order Ecumenical (O:E) was established in response to the Second Vatican Council. It was an experiment in 20th century community.

Attended Vatican II as observers.

The Cultural Studies Curriculum was completed and taught. The central image of the curriculum focused on explorations surrounding the questions "What is the revolution going on in our world at this time?" and "What does it mean to be a creator of humanness in the midst of that?"

Fifty students were in an 8 week work­study program on the West Side of Chicago.

RS-1 was taught on the East coast and the West coast.

Following the first trip to Africa, Iron Cross (Congolese cross) became a dominant symbol.

Lumumba Room dynamic named as a result of trip to Africa.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Six weeks long. RS-1 and Imaginal Education Pedagogy. Fifth City Preschool* curriculum created. A teachers' group met during the summer. Participants were primarily college students, teachers and church leaders.

COUNCIL I: Emphasized writing to clarify context, task & basic structures of the organization. "The Prolegomena to the Rule of the Order" was written.

Worship was held in the jet hanger.

5th City Preschool opened in September. It was the first 5th City structure created as a part of the community reformulation project. It dealt directly with the "victim image" of people living in the inner city. The first Preschool field trip was an airplane ride over Chicago. In 1971 an independent researcher for HEW said, "...Your preschool is one of the ten in the nation selected by the Office of Economic Opportunity as a particularly suitable for a demonstration project." (5th City, Rebirth of the Human City, 1973).

Teachers' Guild formed in the fall: Kay Maconathy, Pat Scott, Sarah Hewitte, Anne Filipski, Jim Campbell, Ken Filipski, Dolores Perez, Donna McCleskey, Marilyn Miller Oyler and Kay Ent Lush were the first participants in the guild.

5th City Preschool teachers 1966-97: Ruth Marshall, Rose West, Nan Grow, Aimee Hilliard, Maryann Wainwright. (Grow, 1993.)

The first IMAGE is published. (Grow, 1993).

"Work Days" created as corporate, team building, spirit filled events.

Community workdays cleaned streets and built playlots. The price of admission to a barbecue in 1966 was one chicken. While 400 chickens sizzled, 400 people danced and sang. (5th City, Rebirth of the Human City, 1973).

"Model Building," creating scenarios and plans for the future, was a primary mode of operation.

First Presidium, a meeting of colleagues to form to working together. USA/Summer.

First talk of the "Spirit Movement" to refer to those people around the world committed to creating a new culture where full humanness would be possible for everyone on the planet.

First Metro Cadres, meetings of people committed to change within the structure of the local church.

Created strong continental teaching faculty and developed a broad network of colleagues.

FIFTH CITY RESEARCH: Took place in a community within East Garfield Park on the Near West Side of Chicago. The area was bounded by Madison, Kedzie, the Eisenhower Expressway, and Central Park Boulevard. (Chicago, 1976). Conducted door­to­door survey and community assessment as prelude to launching 5th City model. Brainstormed and organized data from the survey to build 5th City "Problemat."

I think we listed 5,286 problems in creating the 5th City Model. We met each week with the members of the community and brainstormed and then gestalted and created proposed solutions in the 5th City team. Thus we tended to create solutions we had to do, not the things the community could do. - A learning experience. (West, 1992).

First 5th City Quarterly Congress. A town meeting held with over 200 people from the community.

Published Fifth City newsletter, THE VOICE.

RS 1 courses were large, 130­150 people. Oklahoma City course had 150 people.

Fifth City Jets Curriculum created. Afternoon Youth Program for ages 6-14, July 1966­March 1967. "We were divided into four age groups and met in the Jet Hangar (destroyed during the Martin Luther King riots, I think.) (Allerding, 1992).

First Student House with college students began in the Fall.

First trip to Asia in the spring of 1967. Joe and Lyn Mathews and Frank and Aimee Hilliard travelled to Asian nations doing RS-1 courses, set up by church/missionary contacts and speaking to groups. (Sharp, 1992).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Conducted six weeks of movement training and the created the basic curriculum. Key to this was the designing of the Imaginal Education Curriculum. The approach of Imaginal Education was drawn from Kenneth Boulding's understanding of images:

1. Everyone operates out of images;

2. Images govern behavior;

3. Images are created by messages that can be designed and communicated;

4. Images can change; and

5. Changed images change behavior.

The UR Course, on how primal images and depth experiences inform what it means to be a human being, was taught for the first time. There were six basic UR images of humanness: Black, Tan, Brown, Red, White and Yellow. The name UR came from mythology surrounding a city in ancient Sumer known for its cultural diversity.

The Iron Man statue was unveiled in 5th City plaza and The Iron Man Covenant was written. The statue was created to hold the power and strength required of people who had decided to make a commitment to building their local community on behalf of the world. The 18' statue still stands at the entrance to the 5th City shopping plaza. (5th City, Rebirth of the Human City, 1973).

The Black Berets were formed and the first Fifth City Festivals and Ur festivals were held in the community.

Martin Luther King was assassinated and the neighborhood was badly damaged. By the way, the "riots" occurred, Friday ­ Saturday, April 5 ­6, 1968. Dr. King was shot on Thursday evening about 6:30 pm. RS­I's were interrupted Friday evening just after the meal time. (Troxel, 1992).

Kinderschool opened in the Program Center. (Grow, 1993).

By this time around 14,000 people had participated in RS-I and advanced courses.

COUNCIL II: created "Document I, The Declaration of the Spirit Movement", and the People of G.O.D. triangles.

Corporately studied Saviors of God, N. Kazantzakis.

Consensed on the North American Grid.

Initiated the Student House experiment with 12 high school youth and the first youth (19) were sent to live and study abroad.

Second trek through Asia, spring 1968. Don and Claudia Cramer and Donna and David McKlesky taught RS-1 courses in local churches. (Sharp, 1992).

First trip to Latin America. Hayes, Marshalls, Addingtons. (Grow, 1993.)

First trip to the Middle East and research was conducted on the Historical Church and the Tan Ur. First trip to South East Asia where research was conducted on the Chinese Ur. Over 2000 people went through courses on these trips. Pierce and Hahn. (Grow, 1993).

Published the IMAGE, "5th City Presuppositions," Chicago.

The New Religious Mode (NRM) began to develop in collegiums, and in weekend Problem Solving Units (PSU's).

"Penetration trip to Australis with JWM culminates in OTFORD Council which birthed the EI/Spirit Movement in Australia." (Stanfield, 1992).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Research from the year was pulled together and the New Religious Mode (NRM) was created. Piloted the curriculum that became the Academy. "This was when we got up early ­ 3 or 4 am ­ in order to keep our low profile in the community just following the April Riots." (Troxel, 1992).

COUNCIL III: Created the "Movement Designs" and wrote "Document II, The Construct of the Movement."

"THE ACADEMY was established in 1968 as an experiment in education that took seriously the relationship of depth study and the corporate life." It was a two month program attended by people from all over the world and at one time was "accredited by more than 50 colleges, universities and seminars." (The Academy, 1975).

Imaginal Education course was taught for the first time in the fall.

Taught the first Global Academy* with 20 people in the Fall of 1968. David McCleskey, Dean. A teaching team toured Europe and taught in England, Germany, Holland and Yugoslavia.

January 1969. Launched the Urban Academy, an intensive six-week program. Trained urban leaders from ghettos across the country. George West, Dean. Most of the participants were from 5th City and the South Side of Chicago.

Began summer programs for the "Emerging Generation," children and youth of all ages.

Corporate Religious House Model built during August.

The community expanded that summer with the establishment of five new locations: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago: South, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Los Angeles. (Celebrating a Quarter Century of Service, July 1979). Another memory has the locations as "...Rockford, Boston, Atlanta, Los Angeles and Kuala Lumpur, Sydney." (Allerding, 1992).

Kuala Lumpur (KL) was first house overseas and was followed by Sydney, Australia in '69. (Stanfield, 1993).

Spring, 1969, second "Global Academy," was held in the Program Center. Frank Hilliard, Dean. (Grow, 1993).

Spring Academy joined forces and held one Academy on the West Side campus.

The development of the Odyssey, a spirit journey retreat, begins and the first Odyssey is held.

One of the most interesting phenomena I remember about the NRM and the Religious Hoses was that in December [1968] when the Priors all came back, each House had experimented with a construct that evolved in the Odyssey format we later all came to know and love. The key was that each [house] had done it without consulting with one another. Synchronicity par excellence. That was confirmation that we had struck a deep chord into the Spirit Life. (Troxel, 1992).

Corporate study of St.John of the Cross and Warriors of God, Nigg.

Corporate study of The Image, by Kenneth Boulding.

First regular Ecclesiolas [Greek for "little church"] were held and provided nurture for colleagues. Engaged colleagues in spirit disciplines [The College], provided intellectual reflection [The Seminary], developed a sense of social responsibility [The Sodality]. (Customary). The Ecclesiolas were catalyzed by the suicide of Bonnie Swain. (Grow, 1993).

Experimentation with the Solitary Office done daily by each member of the community. Individuals stood present: to the final mystery in life [Contemplation], to colleagues [Meditation], to the civilizing process as a person responsible for the past, present and future [Prayer]. (Customary).

Worship experiments included "YA-KI-NU."

PMC replaced by the Parish Leadership Colloquy (PLC) a course for parish ministers and church leadership.

United States gridded to Metro level.

The O:E created a 16 year time line as symbol of long­term commitment to 5th City and the Globe.

The poetry,

"All the Earth Belongs to All the People

All the Goods Belong to All the People (Economic)

All the Decisions Belong to All the People and (Political)

All the Gifts Belong to All the People" (Cultural) (Stanfield, 1992).

was created and became an integral part of the group mythology.

(This may have not been until 1972, Joe Slicker's Proclamation. Stanfield, 1992).

First recorded cadre outside of North America is started in West Pakistan.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: The Academy is held simultaneously in four or five locations,

including the Chicago campus.

Joseph Hsu from Taiwan was the first international intern. He stayed a full year and participated in the Academy (fall, 1969), and lived on the Westside. (Sharp, 1992).


The Urban Academy is held in Tutopolis, IL.

"The Urban Academy did not go well when the ghetto was so accessible for distraction, escape and drugs. Tutopolis was a small Southern Illinois town. (West, 1992).

Fall 1969, Urban Academy held in the retreat house of a religious order North of Chicago in Norwood, George West, Dean.

Wests were the only white faces and `rejected' by the `radical' fringe of the participants (believed to be black panthers) who turned their backs when we presented. (West, 1992).

Urban Academy was renamed to the Black Academy. It was held in a retreat center in the middle of a cornfield fifty miles west of Chicago.

Seven more Religious Houses were established. Four were established outside North America in Sidney, Apia, Singapore and Osaka.

Intensified training across the globe.

75 courses taught across Australia, mostly RS-I and PLC, and including Imaginal Education and teacher training for Australian clergy and laymen and women. (Allerding, 1992).

Summer Training Institute in Melbourne, Australia. (Stanfield, 1993).

Problemat 4x4x4 was created as a rational way of talking about the Problemat.

Gridding 4x4x4 was created as a rational way of talking about Gridding.

Training is intensified across North America. Second, Third, & Fourth Academy taught. 386 attended.

First International Training Institute, (ITI) was held in Singapore. This was training for indigenous community leaders. The ITI had 102 participants from 16 countries and a staff of 11 Westerners & 1 Asian. This was a key awakenment tool for the church in Asia, Latin America and Africa. (the ecumenical institute, 1970).

The 5th City Preschool reached capacity enrollment. Renovation and expansion of facilities had to take place in order to serve the 500 preschool aged children in 5th City. (the ecumenical institute, 1970). People in charge of the Preschool: Infant School, Nancy Loudermilk; Mini School, Sarah Buss; Kinder School, Nan Grow. (Grow, 1993).

The Health Outpost opened in 1969 and by 1970 had two full time physicians and a community staff of five. The outpost served a community of around twenty thousand people and provided health care for immediate needs and a comprehensive program of preventative health care. (the ecumenical institute, 1970).

Global Youth Forum developed. A one day think-tank for teenagers. Provided youth with ways to consider the question of responsible action. Gave youth fresh images of their present situation and future possibilities.

Corporate study of Nerves of Government by Deutsch.

Imaginal Education explored the concept of changing images and paradigms.

Practical courses and workshops were developed:

5 Day Strategic Planning

Leadership Training for churches

Practicums: workshops, battleplans.

North Shore Cadre, a group of people committed to the work of the Ecumenical Institute, went on a global trip.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: "An experiment with a massive problem-solving dynamic which created a form for data gathering, consensus decision-making, and model building."

(Council V Policy Statement, 1970, August). Created the Tactical System for the Local Church and documented the work in Tactics of the Local Church Experiment. 500 participants. The Local Church Experiment (LCX) was launched. A tactical socio-spiritual experiment in the reconstruction of the Local Church. Worked toward bringing self-consciousness to the dynamic of the Movemental Church. Corporate study of Interior Castles, by Theresa of Avila. The picture of the earth from space becomes a dominent symbol.


COUNCIL V: Research was done on Historical Orders. Grounded the concept and practice of "The New Religious" through experiments with the Ecclesiola, the Odyssey, the NRM discourses, Luke, & Spirit Conversations. Developed the New Religious Mode (NRM), Solitaries and NRM Songs. Experimented with Canonical Hours.

Three week Summer Training Institute in Perth included 20 Aboriginals. A bus full of movement people from Eastern Australia crosses and recrosses Australia by bus. (Stanfield, 1993).

First single women assigned as House Priors, Sandy Conant & Pat Tuecke.

First Houses established in Canada: Montreal and Winnipeg.

Houses established in Perth and Brisbane, Australia. (Stanfield, 1993).

Leadership teams called Troikas were assigned to each house.

The first Global Odyssey held during the summer.

First offspring of 5th City experiment launched in the Australian Aboriginal community of Mowumjum and the community of Majuro in the Marshall Islands. (Stanfield, 1992).

ITI held in Ooctacamund, India and Hong Kong.

Created "Room E" research dynamic.

Held frequent Ur parties.

5th City Consult was held and the first Vision, Contradictions, Strategies, Tactics workshops were held.

Corporate Reading Research Project (CRRP, pronounced "Creep") was done in all Religious Houses during 1970-71. Reviewed 2000 (500 books, Stanfield, 1993) books in preparation for the 1971 Research Assembly. The summary sheets of each book or article that was a part of this effort were assembled into two books each about five inches thick.

Everyone read books in the Economic, Political and Cultural arenas and summarized key insights. It was "edge" stuff, but what we were really pushing for were the functions of each societal dynamic. We sent in the results of reading prior to the summer program where the results were tabulated and translated into the more detailed levels of the Social Process Triangles. I forget how many thousands of books were read, but I recall the excitement of being a part of such a huge and innovative method of social research. (Welch, 1992).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: (Held in 3 locations, 1000 people, 1000's of pages of documents. 1 Million pages of documents printed overnight. Stanfield, 1993). New Social Vehicle Research (NSV) created the Social Process Triangles, describing the dynamics of sociality, and 77 Proposals. Paved way for Global Social Demonstration (GSD). Developed Indicative Battleplanning methods, Trend Analysis, Gapping and Clustering. Movie: LITTLE BIG MAN. Festivals were held during the assembly.


COUNCIL VI: Research on historical orders was documented.

New Individual in the New Society Course (NINS), was piloted with the North Shore Cadre on weekends and was first taught in Caracas, Venezuela. The theological underpinning of NINS, later called Leadership Effectiveness and New Strategies (LENS)* was Sanctification (going on to perfection). Experimented with the Psalms conversations (Stanfield, 1993). This balanced the underpinnings of RS-1, which was justification.

NINS was called the Convoy Course for a time because of the large number of teachers needed to teach it. It had 3 Divisions: Female, Male & Youth and was really three courses in one. The name of the course was changed to LENS (Living Effectively in the New Society). This title was invented by JWM on a train between Glasgow and London in December 1972 or January 1973. (West, 1992).

"Impact East" was a trip of 5th City Preschool teachers to Ivy League schools to lecture on Early Childhood Education. The teachers met with people struggling with the concept that became Sesame Street. (Ensinger, 1992).

Created the New Social Vehicle (NSV) songs.

Corporate study life focused on social writers such as Duncan, Symbols in Society and The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism by Michael Harrington.

The LENS Contradictions Workshop was fine tuned.

A new Religious House was started in Toronto. (Grow, 1993). At this point there were 51 Houses, 15 outside North America.

First "New Woman's Forum," was held in Hong Kong.

Far East ITI was held in Manila and the Philippines. It was the last of the 6-week ITI's and drew participants from Japan to Australia. Joe Pierce was Dean. (Sharp, 1992).

ITI's were held India and Addis Ababa.

First 5th City rehabilitation program was funded. One hundred and two housing units targeted for rehabilitation. (the ecumenical institute, 1970). The 102 units were in 8 buildings.

First LENS in Taipei, Taiwan, spring, 1972. (Sharp, 1992).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: The Wedge Blade symbol develops into the ICA Symbol. (Stanfield, 1992).


Research was done on The 7 Whistle Points, The 9 Pressure Points. Movement strategic designs were developed. Corporate participation in Other World Treks and Other World Visits. Other World songs were created. The Watch, the Fast, the Great Ball and The Waltz were a part of the summer mythology. 1000 people participated.

The Nine Pressure Points were a way to guide action in order to have an impact on the Social Process in the Cultural, Political and Economic arenas.

Pressure points in the:

Cultural Triangle:

- Inclusive Mythology, creating a new mythology about what it means to be a human being in society.

- Social Morality, developing professional accountability and business ethics.

- Formal Methods, discovering a new form of social responsibility and effective action.

- Community Groupings, coming together to give new significance to working in local communities.

- Basic Roles, finding way for people to participate and be engaged in society.

Political Triangle:

- Knowledge Access, giving people tools they need to be able to make decisions.

- Deliberative Systems, inventing new ways of making decisions, forming consensus and creating grass roots polity.

- Bureaucratic Systems, breaking through the morass of bureaucracy and looking for new ways to act effectively in society.

Economic Triangle:

- Anticipated Needs, forecasting the future.

(Wiegel, "Social Demonstration and the Pressure Points, 1974).

The Nine Whistle Points were created to help in launching social demonstration projects across the globe and were the guidelines for catalytic action. At the center was a (1) Core of people, supported by the (2) Order and the (3) Guild. These were held in a framework of: (4) Awakenment, programs that brought self-consciousness to people and communities; (5) Interchange, sharing and exchange; (6) Demonstration, showing that the impossible is possible; (7) Training, providing people the skills needed. Undergirding for all of this was the, (8) Myth Factor, the story and the (9) Action Factor, visible action.

The Other World was an analysis of inner experience, created to describe inner states of consciousness. The Other World Chart described 64 states of being using ontological metaphors and analogies. This journey of awareness opened up an interior terrain.

Wrote secular songs and a whole new range of singing began with the creation of "Other World" songs.

...if a person persists in examining this interior terrain, a new world may open up, a topography of internal states of being that some have called "the Other World in the midst of This World." The Land of Mystery, The River of Consciousness, the Mountain of Care and the Sea of Tranquillity. (Edges, 1992).

First Religious House established in Taiwan, summer, 1972. (Sharp, 1992).

The 5th City Preschooling Institute Curriculum Guide and model were completed, for the second time. (Grow, 1993).

Boundaries of 5th City are extended north to include the "flip," 40 square blocks and 20,000 people.

First Global Prior's Council was held.

Created image of and named 54 Areas around the globe.

Experimented with the Practice of Xavierism.

At this point there were 1000 adult and youth members in the organization.

Records in 1972 indicated that 14,000 people participated in RS-I and advanced courses in North America and there were 3,000 course participants in courses held outside North America.

ITI was held in Seoul with eighteen Asian faculty.

Global Academy held in Sidney, Australia. (Stanfield, 1993).

First Global Guardian Consult was held in Chicago. (Celebrating a Quarter Century of Service, 1979).

International Training Center established at the Kemper Insurance Building, Chicago. (Celebrating a Quarter Century of Service, 1979).

Concept of Area and Area Troika was conceived and created.

Experimented with wearing religious garb. (Stanfield, 1993).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: The Year of the Guild, its Form, Frame, Tactics and Logistics were created. The Uptown Lab did research in the Chicago Uptown neighborhood and launched the Uptown Project. A corner park was created at the corner of Sheridan and Lawrence. "Uptown is a Great Place to Be Alive" was put on a billboard in the park. The LENS course was refined. Continued research was done on Corporate Religious Methods. The Cabaret was the major celebration and the assembly produced Desert Song with participant talent and three days of preparation. Created the Sanctification Course. Corporate study of Dark Night of the Soul by St. John of the Cross. Sang secular songs of resurgence. Everyone saw the movies, Dr. Lao and the Scarlet Pimpernel. Spirit Methods PSU creates The Spirit Methods Manual.

COUNCIL: Created the Priorship Training School which was held in each Religious House during the next year. "The New Sophistication" was an accompanying sub-theme, (Stanfield, 1993).

The Institute of Cultural Affairs incorporated as a separate entity to work directly with corporations, government agencies and local community groups. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

LENS course was held Majuro.

The second consult was held.

Fifth City: Chicago, celebrated ten years of comprehensive renewal of the community, a "Decade of Miracles." The shopping mall, the first new construction in the community in 20 years, was dedicated. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1973).

Several properties held by The Ecumenical Institute were conveyed, mortgage free, to the 5th City Development Corporation for use by the community.

(The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1973).

In 5th City four buildings with 58 family units were rehabilitated.

Priorship Training School is held in Chicago. Looking at Mission, Care and Symbol as the embodiment of life. (Priorship, 1973).

More International Training Institutes (ITI) were held in one year than the total held in the previous four years.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: The Year of the Centrum, The Ecumenical Parish, Transparent Christianity. Dark Night/Long March Spins, "WAVE" conversations. Corporate study of Journey to Ixtlan by Carlos Castenada. Held "Hunter Warrior" conversations. Created the Comprehensiveness Screen. Experimented with the Ignatian Retreat. (The Ignatian Retreat was modeled and then scrapped - never presented, Stanfield, 1993). Everyone saw the movie, The Man of La Mancha.


All O:E members began wearing of The Blue.

First full Global Council was held.

First Assignments Task Force was established and worked throughout the month of July to make sure that all locations had staff assigned in the fall.

Global Language School, a program addressing literacy needs, was designed and held in Japan. (Grow, 1993).

Fifth City Workshop was held over seven weeks and a Vision, Contradictions, Proposals, and Tactics were developed.

Worked to transfer the technology of community development during 1974­79.

An ICA office was opened in Caracas, Venezuela.

The first Local Community Convocations (LCC) were held in the spring of 1975. The LCC was a one day event where people from a community discussed their vision for their community, the challenges that were facing them and created proposals to meet those challenges effectively. They were an effort to capture the spirit of the early town meetings.

A community development project was started in Kawangware, Kenya.

International Training Institutes (ITI) were held in Latin America in 1973, 1976 and 1979.

(Grow, 1993).

In the Spring of 1975 the Global Panchayat Trek selected the 24 Demonstration Projects.

University 13 was developed, Chicago.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Created the Town Meeting`76 (TM) program with the intent of doing 5000 town meetings during the Bicentennial. Song, Story, Symbol Workshop was adapted from the LCX. Eight Social Demonstrations were launched. Human Resurgence Mission (HRM) was developed. Images of Faith, Hope & Love and Those Who Care were predominant. Profound Consciousness dialogue was initiated. Sociological Love discourses were presented. Kemper Village July 4 Town Meeting. Everyone goes to the Soldier's Field fireworks and attends the play, The Skin of Your Teeth.


COUNCIL: Worked with the Starets' Prayer, and the concept of Taking Care of Yourself.

Town Meeting `76 used the same format as the LCC and looked at challenges facing both the community and the nation. Town Meeting `76 became a national Bicentennial program officially recognized by the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration and was offered in communities under local sponsorship. (Town Meeting `76, 1975).

This was the Year of Demonstration.

TRAINING, INC., DuPage County, IL opened in the fall. A 14 week office careers training program serving disadvantaged people by offering a comprehensive training program focussed on the development of self confidence through skills mastery. Created by the ICA in cooperation with the Greater Chicago YMCA. The program used imaginal education:

To awaken self-consciousness

To develop self-reliance through skills training

To build positive self-images and self-confidence

To give experience in making responsible decisions.

Trained ICA leadership for the Town Meeting campaign.

The Global Women's Forum launched. A one day participatory program designed to address current issues. Held in modules of twenty to fifty participants.

Trained first local community workshop leaders for Town Meetings.

Nava Gram Prayas, "New Village Effort," an experiment in rapid Human Development Project replication at the village level, state of Maharastra, India. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

Global Trek of the Health Team was conceived during a Continental Meeting in October or November. This was the start of sending special support forces to the Demonstration Projects for acceleration of programs. It provided the next avenue of engagement for Guardians.

Last Global Odyssey was taken.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Launched Global Social Demonstration projects (GSD) and called them "The Band of Twenty­four." Created the Consult Handbook. Considered and planned for replication of demonstration projects. Created TM area strategy and created TM materials. Created the Human Development Training School (HDTS). Corporate study of The Art of War, by Sun Tsu and The Five Rings, a classic guide to strategy by Miyamoto Musashi. Developed the image of "Generalship." Held the Global Community Forum (GCF) rally.


Created the "Tagore Ritual." (Stanfield, 1992).

"Artform Readings," a collection of 200 pages of artform readings used over the years was printed for internal use.

Chicago Magazine published an eight page article, "Start small, conquer the world." (1976 August).

LENS Course renamed Leadership Effectiveness and New Strategies.

Twelve Human Development Projects began with the intent that eventually twenty-four would be completed, one in each time zone on the globe. The communities were demonstrations of how human development is possible in any location and demonstrated local self-sufficiency, self-confidence and self-reliance.

First Human Development Project Consult was held in Majuro, Micronesia. Eleven additional Human Development Consults were held in: Kwangyung Il, Korea; Oombulguri, Australia; Sudtonggan, Philippines; Kelapa Dua, Indonesia; Maliwada, India; Kawangware, Kenya; El Bayad, Egypt; Kreuzberg Ost, West Germany; Isle of Dogs, Great Britain; Ivy City, United States; Fifth City, United States.

5000 Town Meetings held. One in every county in the United States between 1976 & 78. (Grow, 1993). "Oklahoma 100" was the first intensive Town Meeting coverage in a state and was done in one weekend. There were also 100 Town Meetings done in the Oklahoma City schools.

Global Community Forums and Global Youth Forums were held.

Global Woman's Forums were held around the world. The GWF was eventually held in twenty-five nations with women of all ages, in major cities and rural villages.

Human Development Training Schools (HDTS) began in project locations. This was an intensive residential program, that focussed on developing effective leadership skills and methods in the midst of an active community.

ITI's were held in Caracas, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, Zambia & Kenya. (Grow, 1993).

Shifted from using butcher paper for workshops, to cards or half sheet of paper for collecting data right after Majuro Consult 1976­77.

Raised money for Latin American expansion.


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: The Global Servant Force (GSF) expanded. Town Meeting county coverage continued. Experimented with having an order couple, volunteers from the United States and villagers as staff of projects in Chile, Brazil, Guatemala, Peru & Jamaica. Economic and social acceleration took place in projects. Experimented with "Maneuvering." Created The Victory Plaza.

Explored the concept of Profound Humanness and attempted to grasp what authentic living is like in our times. The Qualities of Profound Humanness were 12 ways to look at how human beings experience life, from the perspective of internal states of being and external manifestations. Began to draw together stories from human development projects and community forums. The stories were told around four human qualities: Concern, Creativity, Corporateness, and Courage. (Estimates II, 1977).


COUNCIL: created the "Order Polity Document" and everyone saw The Gospel According to St. Matthew, The Life of Jesus.

The Institute of Cultural Affairs International (ICAI) founded in Brussels, Belgium.

Began questioning the use of gender specific (male) language and began re­writing songs.

Twelve more Human Development Consults completed the Band of 24 Human Development Projects, one in each time zone around the globe. A Human Development Project World's Fair was held in Kwang Yung Il Fair celebrating the completed Band of 24 and a film was made of the event.

Images of the Saint, the General, the Exemplar, the Poet were created.

First three hour Town Meeting was held in the western United States.

Joseph Wesley Mathews (JWM) died on Sunday, October 17, 1977, at noon, following a Guardians Meeting, Chicago. (Stanfield, 1992 & Wiegel, 1993).

The Journal was introduced the day Joe died. (Grow, 1993).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Task Forces dealt with Awakenment, Demonstration, Interchange & Formation. There were modules on: The Seven Revolutions, Learnings, Framing, Awakenment, Maneuvers and Primal Community. Question of The New Reality was raised. Developed the Winner's Circle. Everyone saw the play Our Town.

"A New Vision of Reality, Part I and Part II," an anthology of current works on the paradigm shift was published for in-house use. It contained articles, tapes, and videos for systematic study by the community.


COUNCIL: Celebrated ten years of Religious House life and commissioned the Panchayat.

Created the Economic Community Forum (ECF), Chicago.

Human Development Consult was held in Peru. (Grow, 1993).

Converted the 8 week HDTI to a 3 week version which was first taught in Vaviharsh, India. (Stanfield, 1993).

Developed the 5th City Leadership Program, and offered practical methods training for local community leadership.

Town Meetings expanded to 32 nations. Twenty-six new Social Demonstrations launched in 14 nations. (Celebrating a Quarter Century of Service, 1979).

Held the first Urban Summit meetings in New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

Redesigned LENS was held with Fortune 500 corporations and in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America.

Social Process Triangles were adapted for use in businesses and the Corporate Process Triangles were created.

Religious House opened in Rio de Janiero. (Grow, 1993).

ITI held in Rio de Janiero. (Grow, 1993).


SUMMER RESEARCH ASSEMBLY: Held the Global Symposium. Spun talks around The Way. Established global priorities. Emphasis was on building models to address commonly faced issues:

-How can local economies be diversified and strengthened?

-What training models will best give people adequate skills for supporting themselves?

-How can local leadership be most effectively developed and motivated?

-How can traditions of disunity and separation be supplanted with patterns of cooperative action?

-How can people be interiorly sustained in the exhausting work of community renewal? How can vocational burnout be avoided? (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

The Human Development Training School (HDTI) previously offered in third world villages was adapted for use in urban settings in the developed world. In 1979 it was taught in Kenya, Philippines, Indonesia and Korea. Three were conducted in the United States. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

The Silver Jubilee, the 25th anniversary celebration of the Institute was held in July. People from 24 nations were present.

In July, Nava Gram Prayas in Maharashtra, India celebrates completion of 232 Village Consults. Cluster Village Consults begin in India. (Stanfield, 1993).

The Ecumenical Institute continued to offer weekend seminars in imaginal education and religious studies, the eight-week Global Academy, and the three-week International Training Institute for clergy and lay people around the world. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

Forty percent of the full-time international staff are from the United States. The Order Ecumenical staffs programs of both The Ecumenical Institute and The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

Research Centrum was located off the Guild Hall. A large wall was constructed of file cabinets. Created a huge montage on the wall of history back to... Had the TIME magazine "Man of the Year" covers back to 1946. Colleagues began to call it the Wall of Wonder and it was the precursor to the ToP method, "The Environmental Scan." (Wiegel, 1993.)

Global Community Forum Program Expands, 4,130 are held in 1979. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

ICA programs are held in 40 nations and there are offices in 107 locations. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).

Second Human Development Project replication begins in Kenya, Africa. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1979).


Corporation LENS training held for all Priors.

ITI in Ibadan, Nigeria, attended by churchmen from Nigeria, Ghana & Bejing.

Madrid House opened.

Methods Academy was held in Brussels to update The Global Academy.

Maneuver Method was created, 1979­80.

"The Long Table," a training module held in Sol de Sept., Chile 1979.

"Effective Supervision" course was created, and training was done in a major corporation in Minneapolis.

"Effective Leadership" Program development continued 1979­80.


SUMMER RESEARCH: Held Global Symposium on Human Development in the 80's July 1980. 600 people from 40 nations attended. Updated work on where the Pressure Points had shifted.


Human Development Training Institute (HDTI) was adapted for use in Latin American projects, translated, renamed Curso Internacional de Capacitacion Comunitaria (CICC). HDTI's were held in Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Guatemala, Jamaica, Spain and Portugal. (Allerding, 1992).

Human Development Training Schools. Fourteen, 3-6 week intensive training programs were held. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1980).

Project Documentation Labs (PDL) were held in 43 communities which had completed their first phase as Human Development Projects. Accomplishments, learnings and setbacks were examined. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1980).

Global Language School was held in Indonesia.

Seminars for Effective Mission were presented in Rome. (Tuecke, 1992).

Latin American Training Academy was held in 1980, 82, 85, 87.

Pilot Regional Consults were held in India, the United Kingdom, Peru, Zambia, the USA, and Indonesia. Conducted research on the future linkages of regional resources. This ten-day, multi-sector program considered effective directions for human development in the 1980's.

The IERD was first planned and envisioned in India during 1980-81, as primarily an Indian project. It became a global project in 1983-84. (Stanfield, 1992).

LENS seminars were held in 93 locations. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1980).

Community Forums, one-day events for women, youth, communities and organizations, were held in 2261 locations around the world. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1980).


Training, Inc., opened in Indianapolis as the first national replication of the program. Trainer training was introduced.

"Student Leadership Program," was developed and held in St. Paul.

Leadership Training Seminar, held in evening over several weeks, New York.

IMAGE, A Journal on the Human Factor, first published in 1966, reestablished a regular publishing schedule. It was prepared by the research staff of ICA Chicago and published quarterly in Chicago. "The purpose of the publication is to share research, training and demonstration methods developed over the last quarter century." (Image, October-December, 1981).

IMAGE, Jan.­Mar. Corporate Research Methods,

IMAGE, April­June, Imaginal Training Methods,

IMAGE, July­Sept., Demonstrating Human Development, Chicago

IMAGE, Oct.­Dec., The Human Factor in World Development

Regional Consults were held in 62 locations throughout the world. (Annual Report, 1981). For example, The Jamaican Potential: A Consultation On Human Development In The 80's was attended by representatives from 46 public, private, and voluntary agencies and residents from 16 local communities. The insights of 1300 people who took part in forums or interviews were synthesized during a Symposium attended by 106 people. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1981).

Formation Fortnight in Brussels, a volunteer training program began with a three-day Research Colloquy, was followed by a seven-day Training Practicum, and ended with a three-day Symposium. Thirty-one European volunteers went to third world Human Development Projects. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1981).

Three Block Village Consults were held in India. (Stanfield, 1992).

Research paper, "The Ritual Life of the Ecumenical Institute," earned Nancy Grow a Doctor of Degree and ordination. (Grow, 1993).


Lamego, Portugal HDP began. The community was an example of "Third World" conditions in Europe.

First Global Research Assembly was held in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Brussels developed the Service Ventures business and provided information systems advice to business.

Phase One, The International Exposition of Rural Development (IERD). A process which promoted the exchange of ideas for people working in development so that they could increase their effectiveness. 1982-1984 was a period of testing out the idea, the establishment of national steering committees, and a global advisory board. (Burbidge, 1988).

RESEARCH: On The Role of Technology in the Release of Human Potential, Spring 1983.


COUNCIL: September 1983 - December 1984 was named The Year of Order Council. The events of the sixteen months were focused on creating and re-creating the forms, structures and relationships within the Order: Ecumenical community. Over 200 talking papers emerged from this dialogue. (The Global Order Council Report, July/August 1984, p.5).

Academy held in Brussels, Sharon Turner, Dean. Worked on the transposition and updating of The Academy.

Research and Interchange worked on recreating The Academy for the 1980's. Team led by Jim Wiegel.

"Westside Leadership Lab," held in Chicago.

First Area Prior team of women was assigned to Area Houston.

Hundreds of Project Documentation Labs were held around the globe to select projects for the International Exposition of Rural Development (IERD). (Stanfield, 1992).

The ICA and 39 organizations from across the sectors launched the Loisaida Employment Task Force, to research and develop a plan for revitalizing the economy of Loisaida a low-income neighborhood on the lower East Side of New York City.

"Effective Leadership Training," was held in New York and Toronto.

LENS Design Conference was created.

Vocational Journey Lab was developed and piloted in the United States and tested in Australia, India and several other places (Stanfield, 1992). Addressed the question of one's existence and explored the terrain of the journey of vocated living.

The ICA was the organizing sponsor of The International Exposition of Rural Development,

a demonstration of various nations and cultures coming together to look, not at their differences, but at their common concerns. Rather than dwelling on problems, they examined "approaches that work."

International Exposition of Rural Development (IERD), Central International Event was held, February 5-15, 1984 in New Delhi, India.

During this time, 650 delegates from 55 nations gathered in New Delhi to share exhibits, participate in workshops and visit 30 selected projects across the subcontinent. (Burbidge, 1988).

The Council at Jaipur in February/March, featured a talk by Joseph A. Slicker on meditation and visualization. The Continuum picked up on these images in planning spirit life for?? . The Contiuum was chosen at Jaipur and worked during April, May and June to prepare for the Order Council. (Stanfield, 1992).

IMAGE on the IERD was published in Chicago, 1984.

"Sharing Approaches That Work," was produced. An eight minute video reproduction of a three projector slide-show illustrated approaches that were working in community development grassroots initiatives.

"The Courage to Care," produced by Dick Young. The 15 minute film was narrated by Sir Richard Attenborough and captured the spirit of "Sharing Approaches That Work" around the world.

During 1983-84, Human Development Training Schools were held in Egypt, Kenya, Tonga, Guatemala, Venezuela, Peru, Jamaica, Chile and Portugal. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1983-84).

European Volunteer Placement program in London placed 47 in 15 projects in developing nations. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1983-84).

Kenya. Over 700 villages were participating in the replication process. Over 7000 villages leaders were trained in aspects of rural development. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1983-84.)


ORDER COUNCIL: Over 800 order members and associates met for six weeks in Chicago to determine the "corporate future, formation, direction and goals for the next 16 years" [to the year 2000].

Sixty people came from Kenya and over 100 people came from the Sub-Continent. Many of those participants had never travelled far from their own villages. There were orientation sessions in Nairobi and Delhi. There were special menus and special language groups with help in translation in Hindi, Spanish, Swahili and French.

Twelve "waterholes" were chosen for the New Paradigm Safari: Communities; The New Human; Employment and the Workplace; Ecology; Life Styles; The Art of Communication; The Spirit Mode; The New Polity System; New Education; Holistic Health; The Social Task; and Peace. The question being addressed was: What is going on today, in our lives and on the planet?"

Each morning two hours were spent experimenting with meditation exercises in groups of 20 people called "Holons."

The global community of the O:E represented 700 people from 37 nationalities, in 108 locations, on 8 continents.

The 6th Grade Rite of Passage trip was made by 13 students marking the transition from childhood to youth. The trip took them through 17 states, including the southeastern USA.

Ninth graders who had been living in the US, Kenya, Peru, Egypt, Belgium, Tonga and Australia had a reunion.

As a part of the July/August Global Order Council a day camp, "The Arque of the Universe," was held to care for 46 children in three units: Infant School, Mini-school, and Pre-school. (The Global Order Council Report, July/August 1984).

The Global Brain, a film and book by Peter Russel provided imagery for the meeting.

Research, Training, Development and Management teams established.

24 Primary Units were established globally.

Loisaida Employment Project was launched in New York City. More than 120 individuals from forty organizations participated in the effort to create the project. (The Loisaida Employment Project, 1984).

Machakos Game was created by a colleague in Minneapolis working with a game expert.

TRAINING, INC. opens in Boston, MA.

Kenya. Over 1000 villages participating in replication. The "DOOP" [Do Our Own Project] model enabled villagers to use their own resources and leadership for village development. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1983-84).


RESEARCH: Chicago, July. "The Planetary Connection." Brussels, July & August.

People examined the factors that lead to social change and identified social trends that are leading in new and needed directions. Participants delved into understandings of consciousness and spiritual development as practiced in various parts of the world. Looked at life styles and systems for contemporary social ethics. Leading thinkers and futurists contributed to the meeting: Jean Houston, director of the Foundation of mind Research, New York; Mark Markley, director of the Futures Research Department, University of Houston; Barbara Hubbard, catalyst of the Positive Futures Society; Willis Harmon, author of "An Incomplete Guide to the Future." (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1987).

Seven hundred full-time members of the ICA live and work in 65 houses around the world. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1985).

Staff operated business in Bombay, Hong Kong, Sydney, Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Houston, Toronto and Brussels were helping to provide staff support.

"Effective Management," seminar is held in Zambia.

Transisted from being pedagogues to becoming facilitators.

Ongoing leadership and facilitator training in the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Kingdom of Tonga, India, and Kenya. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1985).

Phase III of the IERD. Delegates returned to their own countries to explore further avenues of networking. Hundreds of events and programs were held around the globe:

-from local exchange conferences to major international gatherings

-from small group studies to meetings of large development agencies

-from local presentations and slide shows by delegates to production of a video film

-from exchanging notes and names to compiling a directory and data-base. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1985).

ICA was granted Consultative Status (in Category II) with the United Nations Economic and Social council, 1983, May.

The Survey Project. A network of women associated with the ICA developed the "Survey Project," as a way for women to get input into the United Nations World Conference in Nairobi, without leaving home. Women gathered to describe their experiences of changes in the past decade and their hopes for the future. This data was sent to an international group of women at the Wingspread Conference Center in Racine, Wisconsin who created a report of findings from the "Surveys" that was included in a document presented to the delegates at the Nairobi conference.


RESEARCH: "Planetary Vision Quest" held in Chicago. "We became fascinated with "New Age" leaders...and incorporated visualization and meditation etc. into our 'repertoire'" (Ensinger, 1992).

Jean Houston, Fritjof Capra and Marilyn Ferguson were presenters at the Planetary Vision Quest.

Teacher's Institute In Imaginal Education, Atlanta, GA. A co-sponsored program offered 45 hours of classroom instruction for 6 institute credits of in-service training.

"The Atlanta Adventure, All One Planet."

A five-week experience in imaginal education for pre-kinder and first grade students (age 10 months to 8 years) in North America. The total number of children was 14....A total of 18 adults from six states and four nations participated as staff of the Atlanta Adventure as they took part in the Teacher's Institute. (All One Planet, 1986).

TRAINING, INC., Newark, NJ opened.

"Effective Leadership Training," facilitation methods Toronto format was brought to the ICA West Primary Unit and courses were offered on a regular basis.

First Global Council outside the continental United States was held in Bilbao, Spain.

The Council in Bilbao was a turning point. Summer Research Assemblies were no longer held in Chicago, and the decision was made to meet globally once every four years. Three Breakthrough Teams were launched:

Long Term Investment Team, Chicago

Research Synergism Node, Toronto

International Development Team, Brussels

Skunk Works ­ I & II. Held key meetings with Marty Seldman: Held a Program Fair

Developed a Global Economic Network Strategy

Developed sales skills

Product Delivery Capacity (PDC) was developed, Chicago.

THE NODE, an informal ICA Network newsletter was initiated by ICA Canada.


Several people attended Jean Houston's Mystery School, and The Human Capacities School in New York State.

NEW HORIZONS IN LEARNING EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE was held in Guatemala for 400 educators, businessmen, [people] health professionals, development agencies and government officials.

TRAINING, INC. "network received award for BEST SOCIAL INVENTIONS `88 from the Institute for Social Inventions, London, England." (Allerding, 1992).

Book Research Team established 1987­88.

Consulting services began in Brasil. (Grow, 1993).


Regional offices launched partnerships throughout the U.S. with local communities, public agencies and private-sector organizations. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1991).

The Earthwise Learning Series (ELS) was conceived in Phoenix.

One-day Learning Lab, based on Gardner's "Seven Intelligences" was launched by ICA Canada.

"Our Common Future" conference held in Oaxtepec, Mexico. Over 500 people from 30 nations attended. The structures of The Order:Ecumenical were symbolically called out of being. Research was launched in four networks: Education, Development, Economic, and Planetary Unity.

The IERD series of books was published:

Vol. 1, Directory of Rural Development Projects

Vol. 2, Voices of Rural Practitioners

Vol. 3, Approaches that Work in Rural Development

EDGES magazine began publication by ICA Canada.

Education Reformulation Project begins in Panvel Block, India. (Stanfield, 1992).

TRAINING, INC. Washington, D.C. opened, May. (Sharp, 1992).

TRAINING, INC. Pittsburgh, PA opened, February. (Sharp, 1992).


First ICA Network Meeting was held in Dallas, January.

Research and curriculum development began on the Earthwise Learning Series. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1991).


We are moving more deeply with our client companies, so that we can honestly say we are collaborating in an organizational transformation process. For example, with WIDIA, a machine tool company we will have by the end of February, in over 2 1/2 years, facilitated 56 days of programme in total including some 300 people from the top to supervisory levels. The top 20 people who feel they have launched a transformation journey will have been in 15 days of programme including the Think Tank, Philosophy and Mission, LENS, LENS follow-up and tailor-made Leadership Training. (West, D & G, 1989).

Texas Lead Center put FM­I in their manual.

Winning Through Participation, The Group Facilitation Methods of the Institute of Cultural Affairs, by Laura Spencer was published.

ICA Network Meeting was held in Pittsburgh, December.

Published ICAI Directory of ICA Locations and Activities, Brussels.

Many locations subscribed to Econet electronic conferencing.


The ICAI has Category II status with the United Nations Economic and social Council (ECOSOC), and consultative status with the United Nations Children's fund (UNICEF). ICAI has liaison status with the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and a working relationship with the World Health Organization (WHO). It is a member of the International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA) and the International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW). (Institute of Cultural Affairs International, International Program Report, 1990).

Village Leadership Development Programs were held in India.

ICA Network Meeting held in New Orleans, December.

ICA:Kenya and ICA:Zambia jointly developed the Southern Africa Grassroots Training Programme (SAGTP).

Worked in community development in Brazil, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, The Philippines, Portugal, Taiwan, Tonga, the United States, Zimbabwe and Zambia.

Worked in development education in Belgium, Canada, Peru, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Worked in organizational development in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Kenya, mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Venezuela.

Developed a six-month intensive International Training Program for Development Practitioners, Belgium.

Three-week Human Development Training Institute was held in Peru and Belgium.

Rite of Passage for 12-14 year old students, one of a series of programs for youth developed by the ICA in the 1970's, was held at the Residential Learning Center, Bothel, WA.

ICA:Egypt, "UNICEF publishes 7000 copies of ICA health manual in Arabic to be used as a health training tool in Egyptian villages." (Global News Briefs, 1990).

"What's Happening Today in 51 Rural Development Projects" compiled and edited by ICA:Belgium.

"Our Common Future in an Environment of Change" conference held in Taipei, Taiwan, November 1-11. Following this public meeting, a group of 75 ICA colleagues spent the next seven days discussing the future of our community. The transformation of the ICA/Order has been remarkable over the past few years. One can't help but sense that our impact has never been wider as more programmes with more people are taking place than every before. They are life giving events that actively promote reconciliation and an acknowledgment of one's situation through teamwork, consensus building, and the planning of effective action. Yet much of this work, perhaps most of it, is not being done formally in the name of the ICA. Independent entrepreneurial operations are delivering many of these services. Though they are "ICA inspired," they are not "ICA packaged." (Bergdall, 1991).

TRAINING, INC. "GOES GLOBAL! First international program opens in Guatemala, May, 1990. Australia, India, Portugal, Philippines also plan opening of Training, Inc. (Allerding, 1992).

The Long March Retreat was held in the business community and done in Portuguese, ICA Brasil.

The Space Between Program was launched for people learning to function more effectively in intercultural situations, Lima, Peru.

ICA:Zambia conducted a major participation programme with the Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP), Eastern Province, Zambia. (Bergdal, 1991).


There are 31 independent ICA affiliates located throughout North and South America, Africa, Europe, Asia and the Pacific. (The Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1991).

TRAINING, INC., New Orleans opened.

ICA Network Meeting, "The New Leadership Paradigm: Ordinary People in Extraordinary Teams." Wilder Forest Retreat Center, Minnesota, December.

OliveAnn Slotta, Denver, won the American Math Teacher of the Year Award. Upon receiving the award from the Disney Corporation, she acknowledged the power of Imaginal Education as she and her co-workers have applied it in the classroom at the Fred N. Thomas Career Education Center in Denver.

ICA:Brazil* "Exponential Organizational Transformation."

Life Options 2000, a training and research program, offered the Earthwise Learning Series introductory modules: A New Image of Learning, Making Sense of the World, Individual and Group Creativity and Myth and the Human Journey. (Highlights, 1991, p.4).

Training, Inc., Washington, D.C. was included in and IBM funded "Quality of Else" film shown on PBS across the nation.

Sustainable Agriculture Village Educators (S.A.V.E ) programme initiated by ICA Zambia to promote sustainable agricultural development. Initial project started with 20 farmers.


ICA related Econet subscribers: 45 locations representing multiple users.

Lamego, Portugal HDP celebrated its 10th year.

Ongoing Methods Creation and Development.*

Kenneth Boulding attends a reception given in his honor at the ICA Denver Training and Events Center. He comments, "When I wrote THE IMAGE, nearly 37 years ago, I had no idea what the response would be. I feel you are making extraordinarily good use of the book and I am very grateful that this has happened."

Winning Through Participation, Basic Facilitation Methods (FM-1) and Strategic Planning Methods (FM-1) manuals are developed by Marilyn Oyler as a part of her Master of Arts Degree. Marilyn Graduates!

The Philosophy of Participation course collaboratively developed by ICA West.

Collaborating authors are sought for a book on Organizational Transformation to be edited by Jim Troxel as a part of his Master of Arts Degree.

ICA Rio staffed a booth at the EARTH SUMMIT conference sponsored by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

"Inspiring the Next Generation: Designing What It Takes" a ten day learning lab for teams of educators from across the country. Chicago, July. (Highlights, 1992).

Leadership Options, "Strategy for Creative Engagement in GLobal Development and Organizational Change," an experience in learning community for people interested in effective service in the world of human and community development was held in Chicago, January.

The Participatory Development Methods Interchange (PDMI), a three-week intensive development education process brought together rural development practitioners, international volunteers, local and national government representatives, regionally-based associations, and community residents. Sponsored by ICA Belgium, ICA Portugal and the European Economic Community. Portugal, July. (PDMI Brochure, 1991).

Article in January-February issue of The Harvard Business Review by Rosabeth Moss Kanter mentions the ICA:

Process disciplines used in a consistent fashion throughout an organization permit people to take more responsibility, even people who are viewed as "poorly skilled" or "not yet ready to work without "supervision."...The Institute of Cultural Affairs, a worldwide not-for-profit network of facilitators, devised a nuts-and-bolts technology of participation (called ToP) for community development in third-world countries. In a kind of reverse technology transfer, ToP has now spread from mountain-top retreats in Jamaica to the boardrooms of Brussels.

Rite of Passage Journeys, Summer Adventures for Youth, organized by ICA staff at the Songaia Community in Bothel, WA, and in Toronto.

"Exploring The Great Transition...Our One World" conference,30 August - 6 September, Karlova University, Prague.

ICA International General Assembly, September, Prague.

"ICA West, Images of 1992":

ICA Canada has contracts with 50 client organizations (The Network Exchange, July 1993).

Lifestyle Simplification Lab developed by ICA Greensboro The Network Exchange, October, 1993)..

ICA Greensboro initiates an Entrepreneurial Interchange Program with India (The Network Exchange, October, 1993).


ICA Network Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona "Creating a Culture of Participation."

Jim Troxel, editor, PARTICIPATION WORKS: Business Cases From Around the World. A collection of stories describing how the ToP methods work in companies around the world.

Terry Bergdall, author, METHODS FOR ACTIVE PARTICIPATION, Experiences in rural Development from East and Central Africa is published.Detailed accounts of development programmes which have taken place in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.


Group Facilitation Methods course held in Russia (The Network Exchange, January 1993).

LENS course held in Prague (The Network Exchange, January 1993)..

Training of Trainers (TOT) courses taught in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia (The Network Exchange, April 1993).

ICA has now been working in Africa for 25 years. There are currently ICA offices and projects in Egypt, Kenya, Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia and work has been done in Jordan, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Ghana and Mauritius (The Network Exchange, November 1993).

ICA's in Africa and the middle East have over 100 full and part time staff with a combined budget of over a half million dollars. Each ICA is a locally run indigenous organization with boards made up of prominent individuals (The Network Exchange, November 1993).

Group Facilitation Methods training held in Belgium, 22 participants, 8 professional travel from Czechoslovakia, others from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.


ICA Network meeting in Alexandria, Virginia, "Creating a Culture of Participation." Gives form to the International Association of Facilitators (IAF).

33 ICA West ToP trainers meet for annual gathering in Denver, Colorado.

The Archive Project begins February 1, Lyn Edwards is Project Director.

John Burbidge has lead article "A Time of Participation" in the OD Practitioner, the Journal of the National Organization Development Network, USA.

John Burbidge article published in the US:

"THE ESCONDIDO GANG PROJECT: A Model of community Development," in New Designs for Yourth Development.

"THE TECHNOLOGY OF PARTICIPATION: The Group Facilitation Methods of the Institute of cultural Affairs," in New Designs for Youth Development.

"It's a time of participation," in the Journal for Quality and Participation.

Jim Troxel, Editor, GOVERNMENT WORKS: Profiles of People Making a Difference.

Global Gathering of the ICA. "Culture in the Transformation Process, October, Lonavala, Maharashtra.

ICAI gives tentative authorization to establish an ICA office in Zagreb, Yugoslavia (The Network Exchange, March 1994).

Brussels decided to schedule one Group Facilitation Methods course each quarter at a different European location. The first 1994 course had 30 participants: NGO personnel, returned volunteers and professional training consultants from Belgium, U.K., the Netherlands and Germany (The Network Exchange, April 1994).

ToP training done with 60 officers and administrators at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (The Network Exchange, April 1994).

ICA Brasil consults in the Amazon (The Network Exchange, April 1994).

Former ICA staff member, Rob Work is Programme Director at UNDP, implementing UNDP's LIFE programme.

Trip to Russia to explore the possibility of establishing an ongoing program in the name of ICA International (The Network Exchange, June 1994).

S.A.V.E. programme in Zambia grows from 20 farmers in 1991 to over 100 farmers (The Network Exchange, September 1994).



The Bug Model

(Transcribed from ROUNDTABLE manual, New York, 1981-82).

The bug model was one of the key images used in the early courses of the Institute. It was also one of the prominent operating images of the local network of Those Who Care. It was called the bug model because it looks like a bug....This model was created at a time when the contradiction was groups focused on their symbolic life and intellectual life with minimal expressions of external task. The word at the top left is Symbol, pointing to signs and rituals that rehearse who the group is. In the lower left is the word Study which points to corporate study done by the whole group that clarifies the task. Symbolic life and intellectual life are ways of undergirding a body to maintain its external task. Witnessing Love (top right) the declaration to people that releases their freedom; and Justing Love (lower right) calling people to use that power in creating new social structures. Witnessing and Justing Love are expression of the task. Discipline (shown in the middle) points to the corporate life style evolving out of these four things.

In the 1981 July Council this model was re-articulated to reflect the current movemental thrust as: the work Study pointing to deepening movemental leadership prowess, the word Symbol pointing to deepening the self-conscious journey of the spirit, declaration (Witnessing Love) pointing to eventful proclamation of hope, and manifestation (Justing Love) pointing to four-sector structural engagement. The common Discipline will involve the forming and convenanting of global Regional teams.


The Evanston Institute for Ecumenical Studies

(Transcribed from letter written by Barbara Allerding, Guatemala 20 March 1992)

You might say, in order to symbolize the difference between Walter Leibrecht and Joe that in 1960-1964 there was a "corporate faculty." Also, the staff was greatly enlarged. Leibrecht's idea of a curriculum was more along the lines of Church History. He brought in professors from the seminaries as well as ecumenical thinkers. But his methods were for us to buy books and study them, chapter by chapter. The corporate faculty was a "first" also. (Allerding, 1992).


The Religious Studies Curriculum

The foundation of the Religious Studies Curriculum was Religious Studies 1, (RS-1). The following is a description of the five symbols that were the anchors of the course and the basic understanding about The Way Life Is (TWLI) that has influenced much of the work of the organization over the past thirty years.

(Transcribed from The Roundtable, ICA:Chicago, 1981-82)


The picture we have called the "Big Squeeze" is a symbolic description of the life dynamic every human being encounters. Consciously or unconsciously, every human being is driven by care, care about the sustenance of life, care about knowledge of life and care about living life. And yet every human being is also limited by the finiteness of all of life. Sustenance is never satisfied, knowledge is cut off, deeds are not completed or are miscarried, and longing for perfection is never realized. Human beings realize they are not their own creator. This enigmatic power that makes a comedy of human caring, that casts us into solitude, that calls us to more caring, and that gives the guilty over to torment. At the same time we are driven to life, to love, to doing, and to knowing. The struggle between self-assertion and duty continues throughout life. This power is always beyond us and yet human beings are forced to name it and stand in the midst of this life dynamic.


The Human Being is, out of necessity, an illusion maker. We are forced to interpret life, creating an imperfect but necessary picture of reality that allows us to function.

The intrusion is an occasion in which reality destroys the picture of our self and universe that we have created, and reveals the actual situation to which we must respond.

The intrusion is not an idea, but an event which takes place in the midst of everyday life in which the illusions about life are shattered and one's whole life perspective is called into question. When one's being is threatened one seeks to defend the shattered life by destroying the intrusion, but the bursting of the illusion is permanent and each individual either is left to deny the fact of the happening or to create a new life out of the new situation.


The word of possibility is a confessional statement about a transforming posture one can take in relationship to the event and situations of life.

This word is pronounced on reality and declares in relationship to the present that all is good, without exception; it declares that my life with all its problems and gifts is received by the universe; that all of the past is totally approves; and that the future is entirely open.

The impact of this confession destroys all excuses for escape from real situations and releases the possibility of creative engagement in what was previously seen as an impossible situation.


This symbol reflects the two poles of obedience and freedom. Human beings are constantly caught in the decision to be obedient to obligation or to be free from a set cultural patterns, structures or principles. The human being has the freedom to decide between obedience or freedom. The guide to which a human being turns is responsibility to self and neighbor. It is responsibility which holds the tension between blind obedience and blatant irresponsibility. In this time in history when the lines between right or wrong vary from one situation to the next, we must observe the situation, judge it, weigh-up the alternatives, decide the response and act on the decision. Responsibility to all of life provides the context in which the decision is made. Once made, the decision is judged by history itself.



The image of the wedge blade depicts how the future is built in the midst of the present as the old forms of care (that have brought the human being to this present moment) pass out of being.

History has always been created by "selves" who had a model, worked together corporately to get it into history and thus altered the direction of history. The activity of this people is always creating the future in the middle of nowhere or out between the "no longer" and the "not yet," and inviting others to follow. As "Those Who Care," change the direction of history, it call for their lives to be laid down on behalf of that very future they are bringing into being. The people who have been called the "Those Who Care" decide who they are in total solitude with nobody's approval, and discover others who have made the same decision.

Those who live on behalf of the future have no certainty that what they do is the adequate or necessary act but they perform their deeds in the midst of ambiguity and insecurity.

The one who dares to care for the future receives none of society's rewards but experiences unexplainable joy and peace that passes any rational understanding, and finally there's no end to the job of changing the face of the globe; it calls for total commitment and requires one's whole life.


Fifth City Preschool

(Transcribed from interviews, 29 & 30 November 1991.

We worked to break victim images. Had a living, breathing lab...way to be authentic selves as a lab.

Always worked with two or more. Figure something out and go do it in the real world. Theory, practice on self and transferral to the world. Example: Twenty to twenty-five people met on a daily basis as the O:E preschool group. EI colleagues and a 5th City community group. We got tangible feedback. Presented direction to the group and got continual feedback and interplay. The Fifth City Preschool curriculum relied on Piaget (kids can learn any concept), Brunner (expose children to as much of the world as you can), Montessori, Boulding....We were confident because colleagues had critiqued our work. Everything was looked at philosophically, theoretically and theologically. All of our work was done "on behalf of". ...Fifth City to the globe. Work was seen as a prototype. We understood who we were and where we were. That experimentation gave birth to the HDP's.

(Jahn, 1991).


The Academy

(Transcribed from letter written by George West, 4 March 1992, Lima, Peru)

The Academy curriculum was developed in 3 segments: social methods, intellectual methods, and motivational methods. Plus the CS [cultural studies] & the RS [religious studies] developed before The Academy began. Most of the content came from experiments in 5th City (social methods) and work done at Austin (intellectual methods) and stuff coming out of the summer research (motivational-spirit methods). There always seemed to be more content than we could get our minds around. (West, 1992).


Lens Process

The move to the LENS PROCESS (V-C-P-T-I) [vision, contradictions, proposals, tactics, implementaries grew out of the summer research "Room E dynamic" discussion and the work with the North Shore Cadre to produce an awakening tool for the business community. The contradiction approach was not new for JWM - that is the above early model - the vision was the new dimension and the concept of proposal we borrowed from a french writer in a book about the USA. The contra. approach I believe JWM took from chairman Mao. I think the seeds of the vision element may have been in the study of The Wretched of the Earth, where he (Franz) emphasized the spirit creation preceding the physical manifestation or the physical being a manifestation of the spiritual reality. We were doing visioning but did not have it structured into the planning process. (West, 1992).

Ongoing Methods Creation and Development

(Transcribed from letter written by Barbara Allerding, Guatemala, 20 March 1992)

Methods Creation and Development -- In Latin America (and I am sure in Africa and Asia) this is a continuing process. For example, here in Guatemala, we are constantly writing new curriculum both for rural and urban programs. Translation is a never-ending process as well! LENS, CICC (HDTI), are all these new educational methods of Edward De Bono--THINKING STRATEGIES--and others. After the NHL conference in 1987 here, the follow-up was tremendous. We have held De Bono courses all over the place with companies, schools and for the general public. The Intelligence Project from Venezuela has been used by public school teachers. The methods of Dr. Reuven Feurestein (Israel) in Cognitive Mediation and Instrumental Enrichment (also thinking strategies) are used in the Training, Inc. curriculum as well as Howard Gardner's Seven Intelligences.

To make a long story shorter, the Training, Inc. curriculum is very innovative and is composed of Business Math (150-page book that Indianapolis Training Inc. uses for GED math has been translated for Guatemala); Human Relations (Imaginal Education methods with a new twist and adapted to this situation, includes, --Self-Image, Learning Styles, Social Styles, Six Thinking Hats (De Bono), Barriers to Interpersonal Relations, Workshop and Discussion Methods; Business Communications--combination of spelling exercises, writing, speaking in public, images of a good communicator--we have just finished a "book", that is, 70 pages in Spanish and bound for this course; Development of the Intelligence, using mainly De Bono and Feuerstein methods; and, last but not least, Professional Style, outside speakers from the business community, how to manage your stress, your time, your appearance, motivation of your workers, methods to use with your business colleagues, such as how to plan a celebrative event (birthday), evaluation at the end of the program, and a 2-hour workshop/talk through the dynamics of RS-I, followed by a workshop on the four C's (creativity, care, courage and community.)

The actual process of creating all of this (which is very different from the USA Training, Inc. clerical program) became necessary after we reflected on our Research Phase to begin this program in Guatemala. We visited about 75 companies, development agencies, universities and other vocational training programs to find out what kind of training was needed for "mandos medios"--the lower level, already employed administrative and factory workers. They are our audience. Therefore, this curriculum is in response to what they said was needed. In September of this year for our third program, we will begin an advanced program, which the participating companies have asked for. This will be Organizational Skills, English as a Second Language, "Effective" Communication (don't have the name nailed down yet), Creativity Strategy (De Bono), and Professional Style, Our T.I. program is held five days a week for 8 weeks, three hours each night and consists of five courses. We have five faculty members: one Guatemalan, one Spaniard, one Venezuelan, and two Americans.


ICA:BRAZIL, "Exponential Organizational Transformation" by Nan Grow.(Transcribed from newsletter ICA:Brasil, June 1991)

It began with the decision of the President...to transform and unite the cultures within (the company). Then three of us...were asked to come up with a plan for implanting the culture of the directors into the daily life of the workers in office, plant and factory. We did some dreaming and scheming and then went to the thirteen directors to ask just what it was in their culture that was different, what it was they had that the company needed. The answer sounded like a definition of Profound Humanness! courage to risk, a sense of responsibility for the whole, initiative in making decisions, clarity that the company must make a profit and that meant quality of service to the clients.

Then they reflected that they had a LENS in 1986 that turned their company around....It had been for directors and upper management only. Clearly, they said, if we want another major move, we need another LENS, and this time for the lower levels of management.

The first week of April saw a LENS for fifty of the managers. It took a while for them to believe that the directors were literally putting the future of the company in their hands. Then the fear and fascination hit them, and the song...took on real significance.

Since the LENS we have held implementary sessions in each branch, engaging two hundred and fifty people in the designing and doing of tactics. In June we begin a second round of visits, and we expect to have five hundred employees directly involved in the transformation process by the first of July. By November all 2000 employees will be active.


The Academy, a brochure published by The Ecumenical Institute. (May 1975).

All One Planet. (1986). The Institute of Cultural Affairs, Atlanta.

Burbidge, J., Institute of Cultural Affairs International, (Eds.). Approaches that Work in Rural Development: IERD Series No. 3: Introduction. p.21. Munchen: K.G. Sauer.

Celebrating One Quarter Century of Service. (1979). The Ecumenical Institute. The Institute of Cultural Affairs.

Council V, Policy Statement on the Initiation of the Local Church Experiment. (1970, August). The Ecumenical Institute, Chicago.

Cultural Studies I (CS-1). Lecture notes. (Spring, 1972).

Customary, Towards a Customary of the Symbolic Practices of The Order: Ecumenical. (no date).

the ecumenical institute. (1970). The Ecumenical Institute, Chicago.

The Ecumenical Institute. (1974). "Focus: Community Reformulation. A Special Report." Chicago.

Estimates II. (1977). Future Engagement, Task Force V, Proceedings of the Global Research Assembly, the Institute of Cultural Affairs. Chicago, IL.

5th City, Rebirth of the Human City. (1973). 5th City, Chicago.

Global New Briefs. (1990).

Global Order Council Report. (1984 July-August). Kines, W., Kines, J. (Eds.). World Media Institute, Canada.

Grow, N. (1991, June, Volume one: Number Two). Exponential Organizational Transformation. ECONET ICA:Brazil Consulting Services, p.1.

Highlights. (1992 Summer). The Institute of Cultural Affairs, Chicago.

Highlights. (1991, spring). The Institute of Cultural Affairs, Chicago.

Image. (1967, Summer). The Ecumenical Institute.

Image. (1981 October-November). The Institute of Cultural Affairs, Chicago.

The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (1979). Annual Report.

The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (1980). Annual Report

The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (1981). Annual Report.

The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (1983-84). Annual Report.

The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (1985). An Annual Report.

The Institute of Cultural Affairs in the U.S.A. (1991). National Report.

International Program Report. (1990). The Institute of Cultural Affairs International, Brussels, Belgium.

The Loisaida Employment Project. (1984).

Morrill, D. "The History of the Global Movement's Assemble­ing" (Collegium, 24 March, 1979) New York Region, The Institute of Cultural Affairs, New York, New York.

Morrill, D. "A Brief History of the Order:Ecumenical" The first 25 years of Order:Ecumenical, Prepared for the retreat on Profound Vocation, Quarter III, 1977­1978. Collegiums on the Religious.

Methods Manual, The Institute of Cultural Affairs. (date unknown).

PDMI Brochure, 1991.

Roundtable, manual prepared for ICA:Chicago, The Global Roundtable, Chicago, Quarter II, 1981-82.

Social and Intellectual Methods of the Order, prepared for Area New York, Quarter IV, 1977­1978.

Staff. (1990, January). Projects Improve Health and Family Income Beni Suef, Egypt. Global News Briefs.

The Other World. (1992, March). Edges, p. 18-23.

Town Meeting`76. (1975). Chicago, IL: The Institute of Cultural Affairs.

Ullrich, P. (1976, August). Start small, conquer the world. Chicago, pp. 82-87, 178.

Wiegel, J. (1974, August). Social Demonstration and the Pressure Points. T-264. Global Priors Council, Chicago.



Dorothea Jewell, Seattle

Pat Tuecke, San Francisco

Carol Fleischman, New Orleans

Marilyn Oyler, Phoenix

Dan Groves, Yakima

Hubert Fulkerson, Phoenix

Angelica Rodriquez, Chile/Phoenix

John Oyler, Phoenix

Teresa Lingafelter, Redlands

Robert Lingafelter, Redlands

Raul Jorquera, Chile/Phoenix

Shakuntala Jadhav, Pune

Kay Fulkerson, Phoenix

Rick Walters, Dallas

Leslie Jackson, Denver

Kim Epley, Denver

Linda Hamilton, Redlands

Ken Whitney, Denver

Gary Forbes, Phoenix

Beret Griffith, San Carlos

John Adam, San Diego

Jim Wiegel, Phoenix

Kate Ward, Phoenix


Barbara Alerding, Guatemala, to Beret Griffith, 20 March 1992.

Pamela and Terry Bergdall, Lusaka, to Beret Griffith, 13 January 1991.

John Burbidge, "Thank You, Kenneth Boulding," Seattle, April 1992.

Edith Byers, conversation, Phoenix, 25 May 1992.

Burna Dunn, Denver, to Beret Griffith, 27 May 1992.

Donald P. Elliot, Denver, to Beret Griffith, 4 March 1992, Econet mail.

Ann Ensinger, Fresh Meadows, to Beret Griffith, 24 February 1992, Transcript and note made on copy of "Methods History" in the hand of Ann Ensinger.

Nan Grow, Caracas, edited copy of "Draft" History, January, 1993.

Linda Hamilton, conversation, Phoenix, 25 May 1992.

Sookja Hutcheons & Jim Troxel, Chicago, to Beret Griffith, January 1992. Hand written notes made on a photocopy of a page of the "Methods History."

ICA West Facilitators, (1991, September). Data from workshop on "Methods History" conducted at a meeting of ICA West facilitators, Phoenix, AZ.

Lela Jahn, San Francisco, conversations, 29 & 30 November, 1991.

Dorothea Jewell, Seattle, to Beret Griffith, 3 March 1992, Econet mail.

Marilyn Oyler, Phoenix, to Beret Griffith, November 1991, Econet mail.

Marie Sharp, Washington, DC, to Beret Griffith, November 1992, mail.

Martha Lee Sugg, Denver, to Beret Griffith, 21 April 1992.

Brian Stanfield, Toronto, to Beret Griffith, March 1992, Econet mail and an edited copy of "Draft" History, October 1992.

David Thomas, Bellevue, to Beret Griffith, 12 April 1992.

Jim Troxel, Chicago, to Beret Griffith, 26 February 1992, Econet mail.

Sandra True, Portland, to Beret Griffith, 14 March 1992, Econet mail.

Patricia Tuecke, San Francisco, conversation, 1 April & 25 April, 1992.

Li Dona Wagner, Victoria, B.C., to Beret Griffith, 7 February, 1992.

Jean Watts, New Orleans, a bag of audio tapes, July, 1992.

Susan Wegner, Houston, to Beret Griffith, 26 February 1992, Econet mail.

Catherine Welch, Denver, to Beret Griffith, 6 March 1992.

Dick and Gail West, Bombay, to ICA West Field Office, San Carlos, December 1989.

George West, Lima, to Beret Griffith, 4 March 1992.

Jim Wiegel, Phoenix, various conversations, 1992 & 1993.

Ieva Wool, Vancouver, to Beret Griffith, 5 March 1992, Econet mail.